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Jared Calaway

Interesting statement. I don't think Tenzin Gyatso was saying that the compassion in each tradition was the same, but that it provides a platform for conversation. The title of "one truth," however, does fall into that "essential unity" that you, I think rightly, state is a chimera.

I thought his point about developing personal relationships with people of other faiths was quite right as a way to improve this dialogue of increasing mutual understanding without sacrificing one's own religious identity, so that one can see what common ground there is, but also how that common ground is framed differently across traditions.

I find your statement that people within traditions can't agree, so much more so across traditions to be a false "qal v'homer," so to speak. I often find that different elements in a particular tradition have more in common with figures or groups in other traditions than with opposing groups within their own tradition.

I did find it interesting, however, that the common point he isolated was his own hobby horse. I am sure if an imam, head rabbi, or Christian leader made the statement, they may have found a different platform.

Jared Calaway

Correction: not a qal v'homer, but homer v'qal.


Hi Jared,

Thanks for your always-interesting comments.

I agree with you that a look at "compassion in each tradition" provides a platform for conversation. It's a great conversation-starter among people who are strong believers of different faiths.

So is "forgiveness." It's harder, but for that reason perhaps even more fruitful, to discuss what Soloveitchik calls "The Virtue of Hate":

Sooner or later, probably sooner, it becomes productive to speak about the relationship of ethics to meta-ethics in each tradition. The discussion of this is avoided at great peril, if the purpose is to understand why people do certain things rather than others. In this sense, Dalai Lamaism is premised on a shortcut which, however tempting, has never proven its mettle.

In short, what I have doubts about is the claim that a conversation around selfless compassion as it works itself out variously in the various faith provides a platform for unitive action.

I am not even sure that unitive action on things like "pandemics, economic crises and ecological disaster" is a well-formed goal. It almost assumes that the debate is over about how to address those things, and all we to do is agree to do the right (Marxist?) thing based on the "one truth."

That might make sense to other wannabe "half-Buddhist, half-Marxist" (his words) folk, but not to many others. Just saying.

You say:

"I often find that different elements in a particular tradition have more in common with figures or groups in other traditions than with opposing groups within their own tradition."

I wholeheartedly agree. I frighten the you-know-what out of people when I remark that I know for a fact to have a greater affinity with some Muslims of my acquaintance - of a pietist, revivalist kind - than I do with some Christians of my acquaintance, who strike me as heartless brains on a stick.

What that means in practice is that if I were to explore the faith-and-practice commitments of the people who did and continue to do relief work in Haiti, from the teams of doctors from various parts of the world who worked in the University of Miami's amazing makeshift hospital in Haiti, to those who did wound care in countless missionary-run outposts throughout the land, I would discover a very, very uneven distribution of faiths represented, and a very uneven distribution of "denominations" or affinity groups within particular faiths represented.

Nor do I think it is realistic to expect Dalai Lamaism to become a substitute for the kind of very particular "10,000 hour" enculturation that stands at the root of the faith-and-practice commitments of those who, on the ground, are most involved in acts of selfless compassion.


"WHEN I was a boy in Tibet, I felt that my own Buddhist religion must be the best — and that other faiths were somehow inferior. Now I see how naïve I was, and how dangerous the extremes of religious intolerance can be today."

I don't understand this line of thinking. Would you not become a member of a faith if you didn't think it was the best?

Humility and the belief that your faith is superior are not mutually exclusive.

Jared Calaway

Thanks John. Very interesting--and with the forgiveness/non-forgiveness link, thought-provoking-- reading.

@ Patrick: I hear this objection a lot. I understand it, but don't agree. I think one can see Christianity and Islam, for example, as equally valid (if "valid" is the right word) and feel absolutely no impulse to convert. I do think, however, that there is a huge gap between thinking your religion is the best and "the extremes of religious intolerance." Of course, the extremes of religious intolerance also think their tradition is not only the best, but the only correct way. (In the language of "superior" you can recognize that other traditions lead to truth, but one is more efficient at it, ec.) It may not be a profound belief that one's own tradition is superior that keeps you there, but familiarity with it, a degree of comfort in it that you do not find in other traditions but recognizing others find solace in those traditions and not in yours (or mine).



I think you're right insofar as how you formulated your question - "Would you not become ... unless?"

But I think Jared is right that someone like DL XIV is making a self-consistent affirmation based on the journey he has undertaken.

He no longer has any reason for suggesting that someone become a Buddhist. But, since he knows himself to be a teacher and spiritual guide, he offers a hyper-religion instead. I don't find it attractive but then, I wouldn't be worried about that if I were DL XIV. He has an immense though very soft following. Many people are looking for that level of commitment, dressed up in a compelling intellectual framework. DL XIV provides precisely that.

Justin R


I resonate with you about learning and finding agreement in other faiths other than your own. My best friend is Muslim and I think he has taught me more about my faith then alot of Christians. Not so much about orthodoxy but orthopraxy. One of the main reasons for this is because Islam has preserved the Near East culture more than North American Evangelical Christianity. I have found in Islam a deeper sense of familial community and stricter adherence to corporate ritual. For example, there is something defining and binding about praying five times a day facing the same direction alongside millions of other Muslims. Even if someone is a nominal Muslim they are still being engrained with values and identity through physically bowing down through out the day. This has given me a stronger appreciation for my own Christian practices like Communion/Eucharist. I sometimes wonder what the Church Universal would look like if we just practiced eating a piece of bread and drinking some wine on consistant weekly basis. We might actually have a more united Church that stretched outside or defined doctrinal beliefs. There are many other things we can learn from Islam in my opinion, not to mention Islam as empire. Christians have definitely lost this aspect of their faith. Jesus is king who has called his people to spread his Kingdom after all.

Quick question about your post though. Do you think Christians are called to relieve suffering? It has always been paradoxical to me because in some sense we are supposed to feed the poor and heal the broken, but in another sense we are to carry the cross and embrace suffering. Richard Bauckham brings this up in his theology of Revelation. In essence, the Church's main tool for overcoming the world is the willful acceptance of suffering. This is why I have a slight problem with what the Dalai Lama states. Historically to become Christian means to suffer like many of the persecuted in Northern India as well as other places.

For Christian faith, God does not relieve suffering but transforms it into something redemptive, conquering, and beautiful. Paradoxically atleast.


I think you are far too harsh. This was a 800 word op-ed designed for the broadest possible audience -- not a detailed exposition. The Dalai Lama has written about social issues (and certainly about highly technical religious details) in greater detail in books. He is hardly a scholar of other religions, but he has helped serious academic scholars who have compared beliefs of Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, etc.

In terms of his statement about Marxism -- I think you display insensitivity to the realpolitik of Tibet and its relationship to China, especially in light of the harsh actions of the last 24 months. Sure, the Dalai Lama could launch an anti-Chinese spiel, but how does that serve the interests of his people in Tibet?

Karl Barth wrote an op-ed piece for The Christian Century in 1960 -- but we do not hold that popularization against him! (You remember that, don't you? That was the one that had the line I regard anticommunism as a matter of principle an evil even greater than communism itself. Hmmm, that sounds a little like our dear Dalai Lama's op-ed, doesn't it?)

You may find the Dalai Lama's statements a series of bromides, but as Elvis Costello asks, "What's so funny about peace, love, and understanding?"



What a fine witness you pass on. And yes, I agree with you about the fulcrum of the Christian faith.

Nonetheless, I have reservations about thinking of it as an either/or. That is, the passion of Christ interprets us and helps us interpret our suffering in the profoundest of ways. Surely this is crucial - sorry about the overworked pun. But it is the one and the same Jesus - prophet and ethical guide, not only priest and king - who is the lamb of God who died for the sins of the world *and* the one who invites us to relieve the suffering of all per Luke 10 and expect the practice of mercy to be *the* criterion of the genuineness of our faith on Judgement Day per Matthew 25 (limited here, however, to members of the household of faith).



Your're right, I was a little harsh, but DL XIV's a big boy and I figure he can take it.

You say:

"In terms of his statement about Marxism -- I think you display insensitivity to the realpolitik of Tibet and its relationship to China, especially in light of the harsh actions of the last 24 months. Sure, the Dalai Lama could launch an anti-Chinese spiel, but how does that serve the interests of his people in Tibet?"

But those aren't the only options available to him, are they? Furthermore, is it really the case that he wins brownie points from the CCP powers- that-be if he refers to himself as "half-Buddhist, half-Marxist"? I doubt it.

My other problem is that the word "Marxist" has specific contours and references a specific ideology in my backward mind, which I find impossible to associate with either DL XIV or the current CCP, but I admit that that is my problem and not that of many others.

Excellent KB quote. You astound me sometimes.

As you may know KB was jousting with Reinhold Niebuhr in that piece, if only between the lines. But wouldn't you say that RN's precocious anti-Communism (for someone who started out as a socialist!) has been validated by what we now know to be the parabola of Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism?

I would think so. In that case, KB in this instance cannot be considered to have been the best of prophets.

Furthermore, and I don't expect you to know this, Barth made a point of criticizing his pro-Communist Eastern European counterparts, e.g., the great Hromadka, as well. In short, he would take on someone like RN for being too pro-American on account of his anti-Communism and take on someone like Hromadka for identifying the socialist camp with God's privileged instrument for the realization of the kingdom of God.

For more on that - it's a great story, that of 20th century Eastern European Calvinism, though mostly a tragic one, like that of Eastern European Judaism in the same century:

Finally, and of course, I was not making fun of "love, peace, and understanding." On the contrary, because I think they *are* so important, we need to get them right, and I honestly don't think the Dalai Lama does. Not by a long shot. If he is a hero of yours, I'm sorry to offend.


I suppose my point was that the Dalai Lama has twin roles to balance -- one as a spiritual leader and one as a political figure. And I think he's pretty good at that. (I would have mentioned his Nobel Prize, which at one point in time was thought to be prestigious but which we now know can be won simply for not being George Bush.)

As a point of comparison, the Dalai Lama is much better at being careful at guarding his speech than good Pope Benedict XVI, who has managed to offend Jews, Muslims, and Africans (among others) with his careless words. For example, the Dalai Lama considers his audience: in statements to his American followers, the Dalai Lama significantly tones down his traditional Buddhist beliefs about homosexuals and women.

Until the King Messiah assumes power, it is probably just as well that theocrats have become unfashionable, because it is hard to balance political governance with spiritual leadership. And that's especially true when the second most powerful country in the world is occupying your land and actively oppressing your people -- and those innocent people will pay for your remarks. (Blunt opinions didn't work out too well for the Jews in 70 CE.)


Thanks for the information about Hromádka, by the way. I was not aware of that chapter of Christian history.


It is a very hard to be an intellectual and a political figure.

Ironically, given the fact that Ratzinger spent part of his career muzzling Catholic theologians who crossed red lines, he has gotten himself into trouble repeatedly by speaking freely in a way that political figures simply cannot do, without fastidious political repercussions.

My question with regard to DL XIV is the following: I don't claim to understand what a viable political path might be for Tibet, though I certainly think more could be done in the West to make it clear to China that its image is deeply tarnished by its harsh oppression of Tibet. But I wonder, of whom does he see himself the spiritual leader? Does he think he is providing a viable spiritual alternative to the many Jews and Christians who turn to him rather than to sources within their own traditions to inspire their faith and practice?

In short, I have reservations about the Ersatz nature of his "spiritual" role.

Re KB and Hromadka. Here's the famous cite from a letter dated 1962, KB to H:

“…bist du dir denn gar nicht klar darüber, dass Emil Brunner, Reinhold Niebuhr und andere... mit derselben Methode und im derselben Stil nun eben ihre westliche Geschichtsschau begründen... dass du also im umgekehrten Sinn genauso kalten
Krieg führst wie jene?” Freundschaft im Widerspruch..., p. 215.

"Is it really unclear to you that Emil Brunner, Reinhold Niebuhr and others . . . with the same method and the same approach now rationalize their Western view of history . . . that you in symmetrical fashion fight the Cold War precisely as they do?"


The question of who is the Dalai Lama's "flock" is an interesting one, and any easy answer is almost certainly wrong.

On the one hand, the Dalai Lama has explicitly said that his followers should not try to recruit Christians, Jews, Hindus, and Muslims -- and that in fact, converts should only be accepted if they have sincerely explored their own faith.

When he speaks abroad, he always reserves special addresses to members of the Tibetan diaspora.

On the other hand, there is no denying that his major sources of money are: Western countries (primarily the United States), and the wealthy Eastern democracies (primarily Taiwan). And of course, his existing Western followers (most of whom are converts from Christianity, Judaism, or secular beliefs) are enthusiastic about spreading the word. That helps to explain why we see, despite nominal claims otherwise, Buddhist evangelistic activities.

Money is essential for at least some of the Dalai Lama's programs -- such as programs supporting the preservation of culture in the Tibetan diaspora.

I am certainly not a student of Buddhism, but I have read some of the Dalai Lama's work (all of which seem to be adapted from oral teachings). Many of them are fairly technical: the primary audience is Gelug; secondary, Nyingma, Kagyu, and Sakya; tertiary, Himilayan Buddhists in the Himalayan region; and quaternary, followers of Vajrayana in general. Other works are far more general and addressed to a "universal audience". They are similar to the op-ed you referenced, only longer and are more detailed.

Add to this the dual nature of Buddhism as "philosophy" (if you see the Buddha on the road, kill him) and "religion".


But I could continue the analogy with Pope Benedict -- Professor Ratzinger wrote technical studies, and at least some of the Pope's speeches are similarly academic. In contrast, many of the Pope's addresses -- especially to non-Catholics -- are of the "feel good" variety. Maybe the "dynamic range" between academic and "secular pastoral" isn't quite as great as the Dalai Lama has, but that is a difference of degree, not kind.


The sad thing is that few American Buddhists I have met are unaware of the extreme austerity that Buddhism preaches. Indeed, it makes Jonathan Edwards look like quite the party animal.

(Speaking of Eastern religions, I am reminded here of the famous interview that Britney Spears gave with Newsweek where she declared that one of her CDs was all about "Indian spirituality". Her interviewer asked "Do you mean Hinduism?" Britney's response: "What's that?")


You mean, I imagine, that few Buddhist sympathizers in the US are aware of the austerity that Buddhism preaches. Even if they are, the standard of austerity is not something they aspire to personally, even if they hold that of the monks in high regard.

For the rest, the Pope and the Dalai Lama are fun to compare, if only because they often both appeal to the most general of audiences. They are public intellectuals. But I would point out that someone like Rabbi Jonathan Sacks is their equal in more ways than one. I think the media would do well to showcase a greater variety of public intellectuals from the major religions of the world.

Steve Pable

I admit to some frustration as a Catholic with the secular media coverage of Pope Benedict vs. the coverage of the Dalai Lama. Admittedly in this instance we're dealing with the Dalai Lama's own writing, intentionally submitted in this venue. I'm not aware that Pope Benedict has done something similar.

It could certainly be argued that Ratzinger has had to learn just how easily his comments, regardless of the setting, can be publicized and (mis)interpreted the world over. But it seems pretty clear that the Dalai Lama is something of a darling among the media and Hollywood elites, whereas Pope Benedict is held in a rather lesser regard.

Ironically, both Buddhism and Catholicism preach a strongly countercultural message. Either of them ought to make us uncomfortable in our 21st century American bubble. But it becomes fashionable to pick and choose those elements we find appealing of any variety of faith traditions, and conveniently leave the rest aside. (I'm thinking of meditation, or yoga, or wearing a rosary, or dabbling in Kabbalah, or whatever.) Interestingly, I have a hard time coming up with examples that Hollywood types have mined from the Islamic tradition. Perhaps because Islam is feared or because it is more clearly a package deal? And after all, what would be the appeal of praying 5 times a day, or fasting, or making a pilgrimage?

I digress, but I think John's overall point is that a warm fuzzy Dalai Lamaism is not the sort of thing that will raise any objection. We can look at one another, nod sagely and comment on how wise and insightful this spirtual master is. In contrast, if Pope Benedict challenges Europe to remember and value its Christian roots, or warns against moral relativism, or even challenges his own Church to repentance, then he is somehow being intolerant, or old-fashioned, or trying to cover for pedophiles, or whatever.

Obviously, knowing what one is talking about is of relatively little import when it comes to getting a hearing in our society today.


Ah the ancient tribalistic cultic religiosity with its drive for total power and control runs hell deep!

And can find any number of quotes to justify its position of exceptionalism.

Mead as an "authority" on the great matters of human culture---oh puleez!

Meanwhile me-thinks you should listen to this impressive talk on religion as CULT---or who owns the Holy Brightness

Plus a related reference on the cultic nature of all conventional religion--especially of the exoteric varieties.

On the Great Tradition

Humankind as one family prior to cultic exceptionalism



I will retain this post of yours above for its curiosity value, but not the others. These threads are not intended to provide free advertising for a "cult" (I use the term neutrally) which insists that it alone is not a cult.


Hi Steve,

I follow you.

There are examples of celebrity Muslims: for example, Cat Stevens = Yousef Islam; Lou Alcinder = Kareem Abbul Jabbar; Lisa Najeeb Halaby = Queen Noor of Jordan. There are several Muslim public intellectuals as well: Tariq Ramadan comes to mind.


While Tariq Ramadan is certainly an important Muslim public intellectual, he is not religious leader (I am not aware that he has ever served as an imam, much less in a leadership position).

In this way, Ramadan is not analogous to R. Sacks (who heads the United Synagogue, the largest synagogue body in Britain), or the current Pope, or the current Dalai Lama, -- they are not only speakers for their respective religions to the broader world; they also broadly minister within their religious communities.


Point taken, Theo.

The Muslim public intellectual of the kind you are after that comes to mind is Dr. Mustafa Ceric, Grand Mufti of Bosnia. When he came to the UW-Madison in 2005, he almost got booed by the audience when he thanked the US government for having liberated Bosnian Muslims from the Serbs. That was a faux pas: to thank the "make love, not war" students and faculty of the UW for a military intervention of their government.

His plenary address was entitled:

"The Ten Commandments as a Basis for a Meaningful Jewish-Christian-Muslim Dialogue"

For details on that conference, and the website of the hosting organization, go here:

For further background on Ceric, go here:

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    Great stuff from Anthony Loke, a Methodist pastor and Old Testament lecturer in the Seminari Theoloji, Malaysia
  • Old Testament Pseudepigrapha Blog
    A weblog created for a course on the Old Testament Pseudepigrapha at the University of St. Andrews, Scotland, by James Davila (archive)
  • On the Main Line
    Mississippi Fred MacDowell's musings on Hebraica and Judaica. With a name like that you can't go wrong.
  • p.ost an evangelical theology for the age to come
    seeking to retell the biblical story in the difficult transition from the centre to the margins following the collapse of Western Christendom, by Andrew Perriman, independent New Testament scholar, currently located in Dubai
  • PaleoJudaica
    by James Davila, professor of Early Jewish Studies at the University of St. Andrews, St Andrews, Scotland. Judaism and the Bible in the news; tidbits about ancient Judaism and its context
  • Pastoral Epistles
    by Rick Brannan and friends, a conceptually unique Bible blog
  • Pen and Parchment
    Michael Patton and company don't just think outside the box. They are tearing down its walls.
  • Pisteuomen
    by Michael Halcomb, pastor-scholar from the Bluegrass State
  • Pseudo-Polymath
    by Mark Olson, an Orthodox view on things
  • Purging my soul . . . one blog at a time
    great theoblog by Sam Nunnally
  • Qumranica
    weblog for a course on the Dead Sea Scrolls at the University of St. Andrews, Scotland, taught by James R. Davila (archive)
  • Ralph the Sacred River
    by Edward Cook, a superb Aramaist
  • Random Bloggings
    by Calvin Park, M. Div. student at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary, South Hamilton MA
  • Resident aliens
    reflections of one not at home in this world
  • Revelation is Real
    Strong-minded comment from Tony Siew, lecturer at Trinity Theological College, Singapore
  • Ricoblog
    by Rick Brannan, it's the baby pictures I like the most
  • Rightly Dividing the Word of Truth
    Nick Norelli's fabulous blog on Bible and theology
  • SansBlogue
    by Tim Bulkeley, lecturer in Old Testament, Carey Baptist College (New Zealand). His Hypertext Commentary on Amos is an interesting experiment
  • Ancient Near Eastern Languages
    texts and files to help people learn some ancient languages in self study, by Mike Heiser
  • Midrash, etc.
    A fine Hebrew-to-English blog on Midrash, by Carl Kinbar, Director of the New School for Jewish Studies and a facultm member at MJTI School of Jewish Studies.
  • Phil Lembo what I'm thinking
    a recovering lawyer, now in IT, with a passion for a faith worth living
  • Roses and Razorwire
    a top-notch Levantine archaeology blog, by Owen Chesnut, a doctoral student at Andrews University (MI)
  • Scripture & Theology
    a communal weblog dedicated to the intersection of biblical interpretation and the articulation of church doctrine, by Daniel Driver, Phil Sumpter, and others
  • Scripture Zealot
    by Jeff Contrast
  • Serving the Word
    incisive comment on the Hebrew Bible and related ancient matters, with special attention to problems of philology and linguistic anthropology, by Seth L. Sanders, Assistant Professor in the Religion Department of Trinity College, Hartford, CT
  • Singing in the Reign
    NT blog by Michael Barber (JP University) and Brad Pitre (Our Lady Holy Cross)
  • Stay Curious
    excellent comment on Hebrew Bible and Hebrew language topics, by Karyn Traphagen, graduate, Westminster Theological Seminary, Philadelphia PA (archive)
  • Sufficiency
    A personal take on the faith delivered to the saints, by Bob MacDonald, whose parallel blog on the Psalms in Hebrew is a colorful and innovative experiment
  • The Sundry Times
    Gary Zimmerli's place, with comment on Bible translations and church renewal
  • Sunestauromai: living the crucified life
    by a scholar-pastor based in the Grand Canyon National Park
  • ta biblia
    blog dedicated to the New Testament and the history of Christian origins, by Giovanni Bazzana
  • Targuman
    by Christian Brady, targum specialist extraordinaire, and dean of Schreyer Honors College, Penn State University
  • Targuman
    on biblical and rabbinic literature, Christian theology, gadgetry, photography, and the odd comic, by Christian Brady, associate professor of ancient Hebrew and Jewish literature and dean of the Schreyer Honors College at Penn State
  • The Biblia Hebraica Blog
    a blog about Hebrew Bible/Old Testament, the history of the Ancient Near East and the classical world, Syro-Palestinian archaeology, early Judaism, early Christianity, New Testament interpretation, English Bible translations, biblical theology, religion and culture, philosophy, science fiction, and anything else relevant to the study of the Bible, by Douglas Magnum, PhD candidate, University of the Free State, South Africa
  • The Forbidden Gospels Blog
    by April DeConick, Professor of Biblical Studies, Rice University
  • The Naked Bible
    by Mike Heiser, academic editor at Logos Bible Software
  • The Reformed Reader
    by Andrew Compton, Ph.D. student in the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures (focus on Hebrew and Semitic Languages) at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)
  • The Sacred Page
    a blog written by three Catholic Ph.D.s who are professors of Scripture and Theology: Michael Barber, Brant Pitre and John Bergsma
  • The Talmud Blog
    a group blog on Talmud News, Reviews, Culture, Currents, and Criticism
  • Theological German
    a site for reading and discussing theological German, by Mark Alter
  • theoutwardquest
    seeking spirituality as an outward, not an inward quest, by David Corder
  • This Lamp
    Incisive comment on Bible translations in the archives, by Rick Mansfield
  • Thoughts on Antiquity
    By Chris Weimer and friends, posts of interest on ancient Greek and Roman topics (archive). Chris is a graduate student at the City University of New York in Classics
  • Threads from Henry's Web
    Wide-ranging comment by Henry Neufeld, educator, publisher, and author
  • Tête-à-Tête-Tête
    smart commentary by "smijer," a Unitarian-Universalist
  • Undeception
    A great blog by Mike Douglas, a graduate student in biblical studies
  • What I Learned From Aristotle
    the Judaica posts are informative (archive)
  • Bouncing into Graceland
    a delightful blog on biblical and theological themes, by Esteban Vázquez (archive)
  • Weblog
    by Justin Anthony Knapp, a fearless Wikipedian (archive)
  • Writing in the Dust
    A collection of quotes by Wesley Hill, a doctoral student in New Testament studies at Durham University (UK), and a Christian who seeks the charism of chastity
  • גֵּר־וְתוֹשָׁב
    by David Miller, Associate Professor of New Testament and Early Judaism, Briercrest College & Seminary, Caronport, Saskatchewan, Canada
  • ואל-תמכר
    Buy truth and do not sell: wisdom, instruction, and understanding - a blog by Mitchell Powell, student of life at the intersection of Christ, Christianity, and Christendom
  • משלי אדם
    exploring wisdom literature, religion, and other academic pursuits, by Adam Couturier, M.A. in Old Testament/Hebrew Bible (graduate of Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary)

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  • Ancient Hebrew Poetry is a weblog of John F. Hobbins. Opinions expressed herein do not reflect those of his professional affiliations. Unless otherwise indicated, the contents of Ancient Hebrew Poetry, including all text, images, and other media, are original and licensed under a Creative Commons License.

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