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Bob MacDonald

Rof'l - A crock is something you cook the best meals in.

Thanks John - I am working through Lamentations at the moment trying to give it an acrostic working in English. I will get to this scroll and then maybe later this year give you some hot air to complain about. The linking of hevel with Abel is also an important part of this multivalent message, I would venture.


Okay, still letting that cook.

Now I want to hear your take on yitron, which seems to be another important word in Qohelet. Thoughts?


LOL. Metaphors are dangerous. It's no wonder that Bible translation tend to replace them with abstractions. Metaphor-for-metaphor translation, furthermore, has its own pitfalls, as this very example illustrates.

Yitron means "advantage" or "profit" I think.

Simon Holloway

That was great. I think the next step would be to propose authorship by J.D. Salinger :)

anthony loke

interesting word 'crock' as a possible modern day translation of hebel.

btw, the chinese word used in the bibles for hebel is 'koong' which is something like emptiness or nothingness. hebel hebelim is 'shi hoong' or total emptiness, vast nothingness, completely empty etc! sounds almost like nirvana, becoming nothing!

'life is nirvana, pure nirvana!'


Hi Anthony,

"Crock," of course, is not going anywhere as a translation of hebel. It's slang and slang does not make its way into most Bible translations.

But it is a helpful gloss nonetheless. Note that "nothingness" doesn't work very well at all in cases like Qoh 8:14.

anthony loke

frankly, i prefer 'shit'.


Ah, but I like "container" metaphors. As in:

"Are you able to drink the cup I am about to drink?"

Or Plato who likened the space between our ears to an aviary.

And, "we have this treasure in earthen vessels."


Very pleasing. Thank you.


what about 'baloney'? i like food metaphors



That's a proposal worth trying out:

"Phoney baloney," said Q. "Phoney baloney. Total baloney."

"Baloney" works nicely in Qoh 1:17, but "crock" works better in places like 2:11 and 15.

Ditto in the case of the book's motto, since the first application is:

What does a man get for all the toil and trouble he undertakes beneath heaven?

Nothing, which is a crock more than it is baloney.

anthony loke

this is great. should get more responses.

dave b

interesting, John, but I'm not buying it.

Steven Hovater

I think I can buy into hebel as crock, but I'm not sure that crock is a singular theme in the whole of the text. isn't there a counterpoint that validates the joy in life, even as it all is still crock?


Hi Dave,

And that's fine and dandy. I'm not happy with this post myself, in that it captures too small a part of what Qohelet is about. If you can summarize the alternative take on hebel or on the book that convinces you, that would be helpful.



What a fine blog you have! Always good to see someone reading Bonhoeffer.

I don't know about joy, but Qohelet recommends the simple pleasures of life, though not to excess, and is immune to the suggestion that such pleasures make up for what is twisted about life and what is lacking.

I need to round out this introduction and include that aspect.

Plus, Qohelet is conservative on things like fearing God, almsgiving, etc., even though he is entirely realistic about the chances of getting a reward in this life for so being. He has no confidence in speculation of compensation beyond the grave.

As I have found to be the case in real life, curmudgeons like Qohelet tend to default to conservative positions unless they just give up on expecting the world to conform to their sense of justice - Qohelet never gives up on these expectations, which means he is perpetually bent out of shape. Still, he remains a person of faith in a deep sense.

If they give up a curmudgeonly outlook, they take up roller-skating at 60 or some odd thing. Q would not have been caught dead doing something that inappropriate.


In Qoheleth, the enjoyment of life starts as a recommendation. But as the book progresses, it turns into an imperative. Seems that the contribution this book makes to the Canon is its blessing of enjoyment, its insistence that this too is part of the will of God.


Hi Frank,

As I see it, Qohelet presents himself as having tried the enjoyment of life path, only to find it wanting. For lack of alternatives, he goes on to recommend it, but not to excess, and without succumbing to the temptation of thinking that life has meaning because of the joy of food and wine or the joy of sex or whatnot. Qohelet is not easily duped, and he doesn't give up on his notions of justice, no matter how clearly they are disconfirmed on the ground. Perhaps there is something to be learned from that, too.

Qohelet also recommends being wise and being righteous, but in typical back-handed fashion. That is, we must not be over-righteous or over-wise. Q implies in the process that we should be both righteous and wise.

Pretty cool if you ask me. And I don't think it's a rhetorical strategy. It is that, but it is a sincere one, if you get my drift.

dave b

ha! I knew I wasn't going to get away with a comment like that but I was still recovering (in a good way!) from a recent trip to the Holy Land and didn't feel I could leave without commenting.

anyway, re hebel: people who are much more qualified can speak more intelligent about this than I can but I agree with those who reject translations like "meaningless" and "vanity" (or Fox's "absurd") and the like because they convey a negativity that is not necessarily implied. In other words these things that Q describes as hebel are not necessarily meaningless but just that the meaning is beyond Q. So Ogden and others who translate hebel as enigma or mystery (perhaps incomprehensible) are nearer the mark, IMHO. I know it's a bit of a stretch but no more than "crock" or any other suggestion. As I recall Seow has a good discussion about the fact that hebel has different shades of meaning even within the book so that one translation will not suffice (though he just uses "vanity" throughout--I think).

Qohelet is a tough one to pin down. Just reading through your comments at one moment I felt that you were to hard on Q and was ready to defend him and then the next moment I thought that you were wrongly appropriating unorthodox teachings of Q.

My own take on Q (at this point anyway) is that Q is not a grumpy old man but an individual who knows and trusts God and is honestly struggling to make sense of what he experiences in this broken world. Along the way I think he says some very unorthodox (even borderline blasphemous) things. I really think the bit that you refer to ("Do not be very righteous nor be excessively wise; why destroy yourself? Do not be very wicked and do not be a fool; why die before your time?") comes at a point when Q is at a very bad place indeed! He has painted himself into a proverbial corner and can't find a way out. The way I see it he can't even commend wisdom or righteousness unequivocally. The response should be one of shock!

I could go on but I see that this comment (not unlike Qohelet's discourse) is turning into a stream of consciousness so I better stop here. Feel free to pick me up on any of this if it makes sense.


Hi Dave,

Welcome back from the Holy Land! Besides the way it makes the Bible come alive, it's a great place to practice one's modern Hebrew.

I agree with you that Qohelet says some unorthodox things but, it must be added, he continues to recommend wisdom, righteousness, and the simple pleasures of life without suggesting that they change the fact that life is a crock in which nothing of substance is guaranteed. I think he is both a grumpy old man and an individual who believes in God, but in a God who determines things but not in ways that make sense to him.

I don't think it's possible to gloss hebel with any one abstraction. Only an equivalent metaphor stands a chance of covering such an immense territory.

The trouble with enigma or mystery: neither gloss fit in case after case. For example, what is enigmatic about trying pleasure and having a good time (2:1-2)? In doing all kinds of grand projects and practicing zero self-denial (2:11)? What is enigmatic or mysterious about "the [so-called] golden years" (11:8) and youth (11:10? Just examples.

dave b

yes the Holy Land was incredible! Incidentally, we met up with a guy that Gordon knows who teaches a kind of full immersion biblical Hebrew course at the Biblical Language Center in Israel. They us a course developed by Randall Buth--looks really interesting and worthwhile.

You might be right about the limitations of these abstract translations of hebel. On the other hand, again, I'm not convinced that "crock" (with it's clearly negative connotations) does justice to the complexity of the way which Q uses hebel. I just don't think that Q thinks everything is a crock. The problem as I see it (and I may be importing a lot of theological baggage) is not that Q thinks that building projects, sexuality, food etc., are a crock but that his attempt to find meaning in these things alone brings him time and again to the hebel conclusion.

I was just reading Seow again this morning--he is very insightful on hebel. BTW, Fredericks' hot-off-the-press commentary on Eccl (the Apollos series) maintains that the overriding metaphor associated with hebel is "temporary." I'm not sure I'm completely convinced but it does have a lot going for it, including other similar uses of hebel in the OT.


Hi Dave,

I hardly think you can do better than improve your Hebrew with Randall Buth. It's a great method, and he is a great teacher.

I notice that Doug Ingram in Ambiguity in Ecclesiastes (2006) has a nice overview of the question.

I wonder what Martin Shields thinks. Perhaps I can get him to comment.

My starting point remains the one stated by Fox, "The hebel leitmotif disintegrates if the word is assigned several different meanings" (Qohelet, 36; compare A Time to Tear Down, 36). I'm not saying it's a perfect fit, but I think "crock" gets the essential right.

I would make two observations. I think your global, Gestalt reading of the book is correct. For example, Q certainly does not think that it is futile or meaningless to be wise, righteous, or enjoy the simple pleasures of life.

Rather he offers coherent but unconventional arguments for recommending the traditional things teachers in his tradition were wont to recommend.

Basically he's saying that even if you reach the conclusion, as he does, that life is a crock, something twisted that cannot be made straight, whose lacks are beyond counting, it still makes sense to do things like cast your bread upon the waters (give alms), not because you have any guarantee that it will do you any good (and Qohelet thinks it is a crock that the structure of the moral life lacks strong correlations; this really really bothers him; he would have loved the Coen brothers' No Country for Old Men), but because you never know, and you never will.

He ends up with reasons for doing things whose realism makes up for their lameness.

Back to hebel. I am convinced that Q uses this metaphor to make negative global value judgements. Once in a while, he varies his terminology and says something like "it's an evil sickness" - the point is identical. It's a crock. The movement of his thought goes like this: he reasons his way into making a sweeping negative assessment of situation after situation and condition after condition (and no, "temporality" fits only now and then) but then backtracks and find reason to offer relative praise to the usual things - doing the right thing, being industrious, pleasure in moderation, being prudent.

It's a great, great lesson. So what if life is a crock, and the reasons given for doing the fundamental things overstated? There are still realistic reasons to do them. Q is able to nurse his disgust for life's perversities and not become a moral agnostic, or an agnostic about God. That's a huge accomplishment, the reason, I think, the Sages came to agree that this book defiles the hands.

I'm a pastor first of all, and I've accompanied many incredibly accomplished and incredibly realistic old people through their "days of darkness." Theology FAIL involves offering them some sort of pie in the sky. Even if you and I may live with the sense that the resurrection changes everything, yada yada, for others, the best-case scenario is that they lean on someone else's hope a little even if they cannot share it, while they themselves *do not know,* itself a kind of hope.

dave b

This discussion really should be taking place over drinks (and pipes?)--from one Qohelet admirer to another...cheers!!

personally I am a bit reticent about taking Q's hebel conclusions as normative. Q does at points see the world as irreparably crooked but as I see it the problem is not with the world but with Q autonomous epistemology (something he himself comes to realize). I take the epilogue's affirmation of Q as like YHWH's affirmation of Job at the end of that book--he affirms his journey and telos without affirming everything he says along the way (I wonder if I can any more forms of affirm in that sentence?).


Cheers indeed! I don't have to share Q's expectations of the world in all details in order to benefit from and appreciate his reflections on how the world fails from his point of view.

I think Q is a healthy reminder that it is actually godless to think that we live in the best of all possible worlds.

If we did, Romans 8 for example would be meaningless, because there would be nothing crooked that needs fixing. The whole creation groans, said Paul. Yes it does.

dave b

okay, I just read Douglas Miller's JBL (1998) article "Qohelet's Symbolic use of hebel" (though I haven't seen his book on the same topic). while it doesn't really help to solve the problem of translation he makes a pretty good case for how Q uses hebel. have you read Miller?


Hi Dave,

Nope. I hadn't read it, until now, thanks to you recommending it.

You will notice that Miller and I, independently, make a number of the same criticisms of previous proposals.

On the constructive side, I like the fact that he refuses to think of Q's use of hebel as completely idiosyncratic. I like the emphasis on metaphor but I don't think hebel is a uniformly active metaphor in Qohelet. On the contrary.

I don't like the way he introduces the term "symbol," even less, "puzzle"; I don't think he brings in post-biblical Hebrew and Aramaic data in a responsible enough manner, though I think that the data is quite relevant, but must be seen in its entirety.

I don't like the three referents gambit. I don't find the three referents idea convincing. Yes, all three are probably activated by hebel and ruah in various ways and passages in Qohelet. But that is too limiting.

I'm not saying that the specific nuances of "crock" in English are to be found in Q's root metaphor hebel and ruah. Of course not. But the range of "crock" is functionally equivalent. The sense of disappointment and frustration it conveys is equivalent.

"Foulness," one of Miller's three referents, or something like "that stinks to high heaven" doesn't work except in some cases either. Hebel and ruah are not just alive metaphorically in different ways in Q; they are sometimes washed out except for the sense of aggravation they convey, the sense of injustice. The same is true of the way we use "crock" in English informal discourse.

I'm going to have to thank you in the article I'm writing!

dave b

hi John--you are a patient and persistent man!

it just so happens that I just starting to work on a translation of 12:8-14 for my thesis so I've been doing some reading on hebel otherwise I probably would have given up by now but I do appreciate that I can use you as a sounding board (and in case you are wondering my academic writing style is much better than that of my blog commenting!).

You say a number of times that "crock" has a range that is similar to hebel. I guess what I'm not getting is where you get the semantic range of hebel from. did I miss something or is this something that you are taking as an assumption. It seems from other uses in the OT and in Eccl. hebel at least refers to the transience of human life--in that case "crock" doesn't fit. Also, Eccl parallels hebel with "a grievous evil (or something like that). Wouldn't "crock" in those cases trivialize what Q is trying to express?

I probably find Miller more convincing than you but one is still left with the problem of how to translate the slippery word. Personally, (and of course this would depend on the context) I think explaining the issues and then just transliterating it might be the best way forward.

what article are you writing--is this for the Eisenbrauns volume?



Happy to go back and forth as often as you would like.

yo guessed what I'm writing for, behind schedule a bit.

I get the semantic range of hebel from the range of hebel judgments Q makes. He's stretching the metaphor beyond what other authors known to us do; on the other hand, he calls things hebel for about the same variety of reasons that authors before him did, if taken in aggregate. Fox covers this in his Time to Tear Down.

Youth is a crock because it doesn't last and because it can go tragically if you don't shun evil even as you enjoy its pleasures.

Old age is a crock because it is full of decrepitude, it's darkness, it's the opposite of golden.

It is a crock to Q that man and beast go to the same place on death; that youth and old age end you up in a worse place than where you started; etc.

I'm not suggesting that hebel trivializes. If that is the kind of connotation "crock" delivers to you, shut the connotation out.

I'm not suggesting that the new NIV or whatever translate hebel with "crock." The translation is a heuristic tool meant to illustrate a number of points about Q's use of hebel as I understand it. no more, but also, no less.

BTW, it's obvious that you're quite the writer when you put your mind to it. You've got a bright future ahead of you, Dave. Don't let anyone tell you different. Including Qohelet.

Bob MacDonald

I think 'wind' for hebel has something going for it in English - I am hoping to tackle this book later this year.


It does in some cases. But it doesn't say much to call youth and old age and the fact that both man and beast return to dust, "wind." At least, not to me.

dave b

thanks John.

I suppose another niggling problem is that I don't think that Q is consistent in his view that everything is hebel (whatever that means), and in fact there seems to be a movement away from the hebel conclusion in the second half of the book. I think we need to appreciate the narrative quality of Q's journey, and see the movement he makes from beginning to end (a lot of this comes up in my essay on structure). Admittedly, the inclusio in 1:2 and 12:8 becomes a bit of a problem for me--which I'm trying to work out at the moment. In his commentary (Shefield, 1987) Ogden maintains that hebel does not represent Q's stance toward life (he leverages Zimmerli for this): "A term's frequency of usage is not the only criterion in fixing its importance for a book's thesis" (14). In his article on Eccl 9:17-10:20 in VT (1980) he writes about inclusios: "Our problem with inclusio as a sole criterion (as it would be in this case, for the intervening material is quite disparate in form and content) is that it does not necessarily inform us about the relatedness of statements within those limits. The further apart the inclusiones are, the less useful they become as criteria for establishing the limits of a unit. This is well illustrated by the book of Qoheleth as a whole, for it opens and closes with the theme of vanity (i 2 and xii 8), and although the theme is reiterated throughout, it provides little guide to the relationships between the details embraced within those limits."

btw, in case you aren't aware of it there is a detailed bibliography on Eccl secondary sources here:

unfortunately there are quite a few mistakes in the foreign language sources but otherwise it should be quite helpful.


Thanks for the link. I'll take a look at it.

I find Odgen's argument unconvincing, though I may find some aspects of his conclusion acceptable. BTW, this is typical of how scholarship works: be prepared to disagree with someone's arguments, but not their conclusions, or conversely, to agree with their arguments, but not their conclusions.

That said, you have a great topic to work on. Thinking out loud, I sense movement in the book as well, but not on the hebel axis.

Q insists on the crockiness of the ways things work from beginning to end, though this never stops him from identifying particular things that are less crocky than others.

On the one hand, then, he always wants to point out to us that the glass is half-empty but, I think, he undercuts himself on this as he moves from conveying aggravation with many things to melancholy about life and youth and old age (about what you'd expect from a crock like him, "crock" in the sense of an old coot).

There is a wistfulness about 11:1-12:8 including its ending that is a bookend of sorts with the opening 1:2-11, but has added value as well.

After all, 11:1-12:1 is intensely positive, even if Q avoids motivating almsgiving (11:1-2), enjoyment of the light (11:7), the pleasures of youth and black hair and vigor (11:9-12:1) - taken together, this is not far off from "glorify God and enjoy him forever" - with things we cannot know to be the case, such as, God will reward you for almsgiving, one's "golden years" will be the crown of one's life (Q knew otherwise).

Q never abandons his epistemological frame of reference. That is the great strength - and the great weakness - of his thought.

dave b

thanks John. I'd really like to let this go but it really is good fun....and I can't help myself!

I feel I need to pick you up on that last statement. Suffice it to say that I see Q shifting epistemologically from beginning to end--from autonomous (laid out in 1:12-18) to recognizing the bankruptcy of his epistemology in 7:23-29 to a reorientation in 11:7-12:7.

We should pick this up when we finally meet in person (you aren't planning to be in Southwest England in the next year, are you?).


I wish I were going to England, Dave. I've had more than one invitation at this point. But I don't see it happening.

That's a very interesting thesis you have, well worth proposing. I think you're right that Q is aware of the limits of his epistemology. It's the reorientation I'm not sure about.

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    a scientist who loves off-putting labels
  • Menachem Mendel
    A feisty blog on rabbinic literature and other Judaica by Michael Pitkowsky, Rabbinics Curriculum Coordinator at the Academy for Jewish Religion and adjunct instructor at Jewish Theological Seminary (New York)
  • mu-pàd-da
    scholarly blog by C. Jay Crisostomo, grad student in ANE studies at ?
  • Narrative and Ontology
    Astoundingly thoughtful comment from Phil Sumpter, a Ph.D. student in Bible, resident in Bonn, Germany
  • New Epistles
    by Kevin Sam, M. Div. student at the Lutheran Theological Seminary, Saskatoon SK
  • NT Weblog
    Mark Goodacre's blog, professor of New Testament, Duke University
  • Observatório Bíblico
    wide-ranging blog by Airton José da Silva, Professor de Bíblia Hebraica/Antigo Testamento na Faculdade de Teologia do CEARP de Ribeirão Preto, Brasile (in Portuguese)
  • Observatório Bíblico
    Blog sobre estudos acadêmicos da Bíblia, para Airton José da Silva, Professor de Bíblia Hebraica / Antigo Testamento na Faculdade de Teologia do CEARP de Ribeirão Preto, SP.
  • Occasional Publications
    excellent blogging by Daniel Driver, Brevard Childs' scholar extraordinaire
  • old testament passion
    Great stuff from Anthony Loke, a Methodist pastor and Old Testament lecturer in the Seminari Theoloji, Malaysia
  • Old Testament Pseudepigrapha Blog
    A weblog created for a course on the Old Testament Pseudepigrapha at the University of St. Andrews, Scotland, by James Davila (archive)
  • On the Main Line
    Mississippi Fred MacDowell's musings on Hebraica and Judaica. With a name like that you can't go wrong.
  • p.ost an evangelical theology for the age to come
    seeking to retell the biblical story in the difficult transition from the centre to the margins following the collapse of Western Christendom, by Andrew Perriman, independent New Testament scholar, currently located in Dubai
  • PaleoJudaica
    by James Davila, professor of Early Jewish Studies at the University of St. Andrews, St Andrews, Scotland. Judaism and the Bible in the news; tidbits about ancient Judaism and its context
  • Pastoral Epistles
    by Rick Brannan and friends, a conceptually unique Bible blog
  • Pen and Parchment
    Michael Patton and company don't just think outside the box. They are tearing down its walls.
  • Pisteuomen
    by Michael Halcomb, pastor-scholar from the Bluegrass State
  • Pseudo-Polymath
    by Mark Olson, an Orthodox view on things
  • Purging my soul . . . one blog at a time
    great theoblog by Sam Nunnally
  • Qumranica
    weblog for a course on the Dead Sea Scrolls at the University of St. Andrews, Scotland, taught by James R. Davila (archive)
  • Ralph the Sacred River
    by Edward Cook, a superb Aramaist
  • Random Bloggings
    by Calvin Park, M. Div. student at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary, South Hamilton MA
  • Resident aliens
    reflections of one not at home in this world
  • Revelation is Real
    Strong-minded comment from Tony Siew, lecturer at Trinity Theological College, Singapore
  • Ricoblog
    by Rick Brannan, it's the baby pictures I like the most
  • Rightly Dividing the Word of Truth
    Nick Norelli's fabulous blog on Bible and theology
  • SansBlogue
    by Tim Bulkeley, lecturer in Old Testament, Carey Baptist College (New Zealand). His Hypertext Commentary on Amos is an interesting experiment
  • Ancient Near Eastern Languages
    texts and files to help people learn some ancient languages in self study, by Mike Heiser
  • Midrash, etc.
    A fine Hebrew-to-English blog on Midrash, by Carl Kinbar, Director of the New School for Jewish Studies and a facultm member at MJTI School of Jewish Studies.
  • Phil Lembo what I'm thinking
    a recovering lawyer, now in IT, with a passion for a faith worth living
  • Roses and Razorwire
    a top-notch Levantine archaeology blog, by Owen Chesnut, a doctoral student at Andrews University (MI)
  • Scripture & Theology
    a communal weblog dedicated to the intersection of biblical interpretation and the articulation of church doctrine, by Daniel Driver, Phil Sumpter, and others
  • Scripture Zealot
    by Jeff Contrast
  • Serving the Word
    incisive comment on the Hebrew Bible and related ancient matters, with special attention to problems of philology and linguistic anthropology, by Seth L. Sanders, Assistant Professor in the Religion Department of Trinity College, Hartford, CT
  • Singing in the Reign
    NT blog by Michael Barber (JP University) and Brad Pitre (Our Lady Holy Cross)
  • Stay Curious
    excellent comment on Hebrew Bible and Hebrew language topics, by Karyn Traphagen, graduate, Westminster Theological Seminary, Philadelphia PA (archive)
  • Sufficiency
    A personal take on the faith delivered to the saints, by Bob MacDonald, whose parallel blog on the Psalms in Hebrew is a colorful and innovative experiment
  • The Sundry Times
    Gary Zimmerli's place, with comment on Bible translations and church renewal
  • Sunestauromai: living the crucified life
    by a scholar-pastor based in the Grand Canyon National Park
  • ta biblia
    blog dedicated to the New Testament and the history of Christian origins, by Giovanni Bazzana
  • Targuman
    by Christian Brady, targum specialist extraordinaire, and dean of Schreyer Honors College, Penn State University
  • Targuman
    on biblical and rabbinic literature, Christian theology, gadgetry, photography, and the odd comic, by Christian Brady, associate professor of ancient Hebrew and Jewish literature and dean of the Schreyer Honors College at Penn State
  • The Biblia Hebraica Blog
    a blog about Hebrew Bible/Old Testament, the history of the Ancient Near East and the classical world, Syro-Palestinian archaeology, early Judaism, early Christianity, New Testament interpretation, English Bible translations, biblical theology, religion and culture, philosophy, science fiction, and anything else relevant to the study of the Bible, by Douglas Magnum, PhD candidate, University of the Free State, South Africa
  • The Forbidden Gospels Blog
    by April DeConick, Professor of Biblical Studies, Rice University
  • The Naked Bible
    by Mike Heiser, academic editor at Logos Bible Software
  • The Reformed Reader
    by Andrew Compton, Ph.D. student in the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures (focus on Hebrew and Semitic Languages) at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)
  • The Sacred Page
    a blog written by three Catholic Ph.D.s who are professors of Scripture and Theology: Michael Barber, Brant Pitre and John Bergsma
  • The Talmud Blog
    a group blog on Talmud News, Reviews, Culture, Currents, and Criticism
  • Theological German
    a site for reading and discussing theological German, by Mark Alter
  • theoutwardquest
    seeking spirituality as an outward, not an inward quest, by David Corder
  • This Lamp
    Incisive comment on Bible translations in the archives, by Rick Mansfield
  • Thoughts on Antiquity
    By Chris Weimer and friends, posts of interest on ancient Greek and Roman topics (archive). Chris is a graduate student at the City University of New York in Classics
  • Threads from Henry's Web
    Wide-ranging comment by Henry Neufeld, educator, publisher, and author
  • Tête-à-Tête-Tête
    smart commentary by "smijer," a Unitarian-Universalist
  • Undeception
    A great blog by Mike Douglas, a graduate student in biblical studies
  • What I Learned From Aristotle
    the Judaica posts are informative (archive)
  • Bouncing into Graceland
    a delightful blog on biblical and theological themes, by Esteban Vázquez (archive)
  • Weblog
    by Justin Anthony Knapp, a fearless Wikipedian (archive)
  • Writing in the Dust
    A collection of quotes by Wesley Hill, a doctoral student in New Testament studies at Durham University (UK), and a Christian who seeks the charism of chastity
  • גֵּר־וְתוֹשָׁב
    by David Miller, Associate Professor of New Testament and Early Judaism, Briercrest College & Seminary, Caronport, Saskatchewan, Canada
  • ואל-תמכר
    Buy truth and do not sell: wisdom, instruction, and understanding - a blog by Mitchell Powell, student of life at the intersection of Christ, Christianity, and Christendom
  • משלי אדם
    exploring wisdom literature, religion, and other academic pursuits, by Adam Couturier, M.A. in Old Testament/Hebrew Bible (graduate of Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary)

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  • Ancient Hebrew Poetry is a weblog of John F. Hobbins. Opinions expressed herein do not reflect those of his professional affiliations. Unless otherwise indicated, the contents of Ancient Hebrew Poetry, including all text, images, and other media, are original and licensed under a Creative Commons License.

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