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Nathan MacDonald

The suggestion goes back at least as far as Zimmerli. Two questions:
1) It would be interesting to know your reasons for still holding to an early dating of Deut 26.5-10. This has been widely and, in my view, convincingly dismantled, most notably by Lohfink. The move has been to see these verses as post-deuteronomic rather than pre-deuteronomic.
2) Why prefer the Exodus version of the coveting commandments, rather than say the Deuteronomic version? And how would you account for the differences there? One way of understanding the changes in those commandment(s) would be that Deuteronomy represents the earlier version, whilst Ex 20 is a collapsing both together in order to accommodate the expansion of the first commandment into two commandments and keeping the number of commandments to 10 (no other gods; no idols). [I realize you are offering a different textual history by dropping the "third" commandment, though one would still be required to account for the changes to the final commandment(s)].


Hi Nathan,

I'm impressed at how well you know the literature. Here are some quick answers to your queries.

(1) I concur with Alexander Rofe', that von Rad was right to see Deut 26:5-10 as in essence a source taken over by the Deuteronomist, recast and filled out in accordance with general Dt practice, but still betraying pre-Dt traits.

On the other hand, I don't think the Pentateuch can be explained in any sense as built out of a framework provided by this passage.

Here is Rofe' (1999: 96-97):

I find von Rad's bold hypothesis plausible. In its favor is the evidence of those elements in the 'first fruits recitation' that are contrary to the usual story of the Pentateuch, and which thereby demonstrate that the 'first fruits recitation' is not a precis of the longer story but rather a distinctive ancient kernel.

I won't cite Rofe's examples. I imagine you can come up with them on your own. In point of fact, the idea that Deut 26:5-10 is a precis of the Pentateuchal narrative, or a precursor thereof (please reconstruct on independent grounds), is self-evidently false. The situation is analogous to Josh 24, another example of a composition in which it is not that difficult to identify pre- and post-Dt.

Note that Deut 26:5-10 continued to be assimilated to biblical diction. Rofe' rightly points out that LXX "our God" is, text-critically speaking, superior to MT "the God of our fathers" in Dt 26:7.

Alexander Rofe, Introduction to the Composition of the Pentateuch. Biblical Seminar 58. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1999.

(2) I too am inclined to think that some of the diction of the coveting commandments in Deut may be older than that of Exod. Point taken. Furthermore, your explanation for the change of diction in Exod may well be on target.

BTW, I have fond memories of hearing and meeting Norbert Lohfink in person. Is there anything that he wrote that is not worth reading? Still, I think he went overboard in this instance. Furthermore, let's not forget that the debate had and still has, perhaps inevitably, a confessional dimension to it.

Rick Wadholm Jr

Concerning the journey from monolatry to monotheism -- Must the text of Israel be made to read like the history of Israel? Is it possible that the history of Israel was incongruous with the text?

Also, does the sect at the Dead Sea really garner our support automatically (because of its early date) against the Masoretic? I am not personally pursuaded that the Masoretic text should receive automatic priority, but wonder why a sectarian group should be more trustworthy in this matter(given their gathering of many other divergent texts -- concerning Messiah, etc.)?


Well, I for one find this totally fascinating.


Hi Rick,

First of all, what a fine blogger you are. It's great to see you going toe-to-toe, from a YEC perspective, with a wider world of debate. I would encourage to take a look at my review posts of ZIBBC. It would be interesting to hear your take on those volumes.

You ask a number of excellent questions. It is in fact not a given, but merely a hypothesis, that the texts of Israel contain within them the imprint of the history of religion of Israel. The trouble is, I can't think of a better working hypothesis on which to proceed.

As far as the field of text criticism goes, no, the kind of findings the field makes do not depend on giving priority to any particular text tradition. At least, they shouldn't. Nor have I done so, but if you think otherwise, feel free to exemplify.

Rick Wadholm Jr.

Thank you for your kind remarks. I've been reading your blog faithfully for some time now (swimming over my head, but being required to swim which thoroughly uses my Hebraic muscles...thanks). I will certainly check out your review posts of ZIBBC.

Perhaps a reconstruction of the text in such cases is not as feasible (nor as helpful) as some, such as Levinson, might suggest. While it is interesting (to say the least) is it not overly suggestive concerning the textual tradition -- that is, that the practice (the actual deeds of popular theology) of Israel and the textual history (the textual theology) of Israel are identical (or even similar). I find this problematic. The prophetic nature of the Hebrew scriptures seem to suggest that the text demanded what Israel failed. To read the text as if there were an earlier (underlying) textual tradition that supported the paganism of failing Israel, is in my opinion failing to come to grips with the radical disjunction between the practice and the command.

My question about textual tradition and priority being given to certain traditions is a question of the suggestion of an earlier text of Deut. 32 (for example). Perhaps I misunderstood this reference and wrongly thought the suggestion of monolatry found here was due to the presence of such in the DSS text. Perhaps Levinson (and your presentation of him) was suggesting only something that I have missed in the text. Do you have any specific details that you might share to shed light on just what these early monolatry entailed (and how we know they were original or earlier)?



It's not just DSS texts but also the LXX. Here are two relevant posts:

Rick Wadholm Jr.

I have read these articles before (while doing some previous studies on the passage you discuss). Is it more likely that the "sons of El" (if indeed that is the original text) are a reference to some other deities, or is it more likely that it refers to the "sons of Israel" as the "sons of El" (that He has claimed them as His own children -- cf. Dt.32:18-19)? I wonder (if indeed "sons of Israel" isn't original) if the adjusted text was adjusted to deal with a perceived theological issue rather than an actual theological issue? Perhaps in order to guard against anyone wrongly interpreting such a passage the text was altered (or perhaps, better, it was interpreted to mean "sons of Israel" and thus emended as such).



It is more likely that "sons of El" refers to deities, hence LXX's "angels," not the sons of Israel by another expression. The diction of Deut 32:18-19 is different and is unambiguous in context. Context is king in determining probable meanings of expressions.

It is not clear on what grounds one might suggest that at stake is a "perceived" rather than an "actual" issue. It is more logical to consider it an actual issue in antiquity, given the textual variants and history of interpretation of the the passage.

Your final suggestion comes closest, I think, to the more plausible explanation. Any notion that there really were "other gods" which other nations worshiped, which Israel might worship alongside of YHWH, was rejected root and branch at a certain point. Other gods were no-gods, pure and simple, whereas at an earlier point, they existed and had domains they were in charge of. This is also the assumption behind Psalm 82.

Would it throw a monkey wrench into your theology if you were to be convinced that the evidence in fact leads in the direction I indicate?

Benjamin Smith

Hi John,

What do you think about Michael Heiser's work in reference to all this, that the monolatry to monotheism paradigm is a presupposition bought to the text, in light of plenty of 'elohim' language in the qumran texts?

Benjamin Smith

Sorry to pick at this again, John, but it's an issue I'm working through atm. In what sense can we call, say, Deut 32, inerrant, if those gods aren't 'real', as later OT writers said according to the minstream theory? Just interested in how you deal with this.

I think the gods are still around in Isaiah 40-55: there are still divine council references in there. And Paul seems to think they still exist in some form or other in 1 Cor 8 and 10.


Hi Benjamin,

And don't forget Psalm 82, where the gods of the nations are summoned, judged, and sentenced to die.

The existence of principalities and powers subordinate to God the Creator and Redeemer is called into question but seldom denied in the Bible. In the New Testament, one such power, the devil, is even described as the ruler of this world. Nonetheless, God is Savior precisely in the sense that he brings about the defeat of powers that transcend the defenseless individual. According to Ps 82, God withdraws the delegated authority he once granted to national deities. The new order comes to fruition in a most powerful with the advent of Christ and the establishment of an ecclesia in which there is neither Jew nor Greek nor barbarian. It turns out that God is the desire of the nations, not just individuals among the nations, and that God over the long duration satisfies that desire.

It is not surprising, is it, that the way these matters are conceptualized varies greatly across the canon, which spans a 1000 years of intellectual and cultural history.

Without trying to be exhaustive, the truth that unites all of the passages has to do with the affirmation that nothing happens unless the God of gods and Lord of lords permits it. Sometimes the power of forces hostile to the redeeming God is, objectively speaking, strong and getting stronger. But the ultimate outcome is not in doubt.

The doctrine of inerrancy applies to both levels discussed. At high levels of abstraction, the truth which unites the various passages is flawless and without error. At the level of fine detail, the communicated truth is flawless and without error, precisely because it speaks the language of men and not of angels. That is, language and concepts are used that was appropriate in specific cultural and intellectual contexts.

If the vocabulary and concepts used by biblical authors had been *inappropriate* to the context for which they were intended, then we might speak of an errant text. But that isn't what we have.

Just off the cuff remarks. Feel free to continue the conversation.

Benjamin Smith

Thanks John. That's helpful and confirms certain trains of thought that I've had. I guess that even in Deut 32, if Yahweh is indeed seen as inferior to the Most High, he is still far more powerful than the other gods. And I suppose you see Deut 4's 're-reading' as the filter to see Deut 32 as 'inerrant' through?

I suppose the hard thing is with D-Isaiah seemingly denying the existence of other gods at all. I'm inclined to see it as only denying the existence of idols, due to the council language I already mentioned. After all, Paul could say that idols 'have no real existence' while confirming that there are spiritual realities behind them. What do you think?

Grateful for your time, as always.


Re: Deut 32

In some pre-MT versions, it might just be the case that Yahweh and the Most High were not identified. An unstable conceptualization, in the sense that so many of the gods did sort of die as time went on (Ps 82 tries to explain why). The book of Daniel's conceptualization, with the angel Michael standing in for Yahweh, and Yahweh and the Most High one and the same, along with someone like a son of man, complicates the plot even as it might seem to simplify it.

There are times of destruction, and Second Isaiah lived in such a time, in which transpersonal realities beyond the individual, except perhaps for the One who foresaw it, seem as good as dead. In particular, the cultural symbols of said realities lose all credibility in such a context.

But there are times and places in which said symbols seem to represent powerful, demonic powers.

Benjamin Smith

Just out of interest, what features of Deut 32 make you think that in its canonical form the Most High and YHWH are definitely one and the same? YHWH is definitely the most powerful out of the gods, but apparently this can be paralleled with other ANE religions, where a junior member of the pantheon could be bowed down to, etc., and still not be the Most High. I'd say that YHWH's abibility to definitively decide the outcomes of war points to a higher supremacy, perhaps, and calling the other gods 'no gods' and saying that the nations are 'on their own' by comparison speaks of a higher authority. But I don't know if there are parallels for these features as well.


Hi Benjamin,

First of all, the term "canonical" needs to be defined. On most definitions of that term, it goes without saying that the Most High and YHWH are to be equated, because that it what we find throughout the canon. Genesis 14:19-22 is an instructive example.

Let's ask another question. What did the composer of Ha'azinu have in mind? In order to reply to that question, we have to reconstruct the unrevised text of Deut 32:8-9. In agreement with a proposal by Jan Joosten, there is a strong possibility that it read as follows:

When Elyon gave the nations an inheritance,
when he divided humankind,
he set the bounds of the peoples
according to the number of Bull El’s children,
and Yahweh’s portion was his people,
Jacob, the lot of his inheritance.

Discussion here: (I need to redo the bibliography on this).

Despite possible appearances to the contrary, it is likely that the composer of the above text conceived of Elyon and Yahweh as one and the same deity, yet spoke of distinct roles of the selfsame deity under distinct and "correct" titles (from the point of view of the history of religion): God the Most High as founder of the world's religions and fixer of geopolitical boundaries, and God the redeemer as founder of Israel and the particular object of Israel's cult.

It's a complex topic; one has to get a handle on the ways in which, in a monotheizing movement, originally distinct gods and roles are amalgamated. No reason to think we understand the subject matter very well yet!

If you haven't already, I encourage you to read the following posts and follow the bibliographical trail:

Benjamin Smith

Thanks for the links. I'll take a look. This area of 'developing monotheism' feels like a bit of a tightrope, in some ways, as far as inerrancy goes. But as you said before, if God can communicate through different cultural circumstances at different times that can put things in perspective.


The reason that development is not normally seen as a problem for the teaching that scripture is a flawless foundation on which to work out our salvation, including our conceptualization of who God is, is that part of what you do when you treat scripture as foundational is that you read each part in the light of the whole on the basis of a felt trajectory (a regula fidei) contained with scripture.

Does that make sense?

Benjamin Smith

Certainly. But take the view of, say Mark S. Smith, who I gather would say that it was perfectly acceptable for the Israelites to worship Baal alongside YHWH at one time. What's hard to accept is that if YHWH told Israel to have no other gods before him in the wilderness (if, indeed, that tradition reaches back to then in Smith's view) something eklse was 'really' going on all that time.


It's the Bible itself, more than anything else, that makes us think that people wanted to worship Baal alongside of Yahweh or in alternative to him.

Whereas Deut 32, about as old a text as we have, advocates monolatry.

I'm not sure you have understood Mark Smith. Do you have a quote that leads you to the summary of his position you gave? Maybe all you think he says is that *for some* (not for those who are behind the Bible) "it was perfectly acceptable for the Israelites to worship Baal alongside YHWH at one time."

Benjamin Smith

I think it's more what people take him to mean, perhaps, which is what filters down to people like me who haven't read much of the literature: it can be spun to sound like 'at one time the Israelites worshipped other gods and sacrificed children as part of their religion' instead of *some* Israelites (or even most). The OT is then painted as a sort of later cover-up conspiracy, ignoring, as you say, the early monolatry of Deut 32. The thing is I *know* that that sort of reasoning is incoherent... I guess my mind is the sort that has to consider all possibilities, even if antithetical to my faith, which can make me feel a bit shaky - and that's when I can only press forward on the decision to trust.

Thanks for bearing with me. You seem to be one of the only evangelical bloggers to engage with these issues (Mike Heiser does too, of course, and helpfully, but perhaps sees things as more neat than they are).


It's also worth asking about the extent to which particular theories of the history of the religion of Israel were devised by their authors for the express purpose of countering a traditional Jewish, a traditional Catholic, and/or an evangelical view of Scripture.

In my view, the best scholarship is more data-driven and multi-disciplinary.

Shawshank Redemption3

I may have missed it in the reading so correct me if I did, but the author is very focused on the transfer from monolatry (the worship of a single god but without claiming that it is the only god) to monotheism (The doctrine or belief that there is only one God) If you consider the definition the only difference is the fact that one actually claims there is only one God. I feel as if the author missed that fact that perhaps when the 10 commandment were given that maybe the “gods” and the “them” is referring to things that could be idols, worshiped instead of worshiping God. I know that Idols are mentioned but is it really grasped? Perhaps the “gods” are just idols made of gold. Like it is mentioned in Exod 32 when the people of Israel Melt there gold to make a golden bull so that they may worship it. This isn’t referring to a “real” god rather just an idol. Growing up I was taught that other gods could mean anything that you take and you put before or love more in your life besides the one true God. This could mean anything from money to a computer or from an x-box to a job or even a significant other. The passage doesn’t necessarily refer to the fact that there were other gods and that people believed in these other gods, but rather that they could love and worship and give their time to other “things” then God.
I may have missed the boat completely while reading but I feel as if this option was missed.

True Grit 2

I found this passage very fascinating. I had never made the connection that the fourth commandment probably was not there until later. This makes me wonder why God had not told the laws right to Adam and Eve. Things could have been so much different. Cain might not have killed Able knowing that it was a sin; Eve might not have eaten the fruit. There could have virtually been no sin! Satan would still have used his powers of corruption but the chance of it working could have been a lot less. If law number four had been there from the start there could be a world full of more peace, no one would be fighting over which God or Gods are the correct ones.


I feel like it was almost a necessity to not tell Adam and Eve the 10 commandments from the start. Had that been the case then there would be no sin but there would be no test of who truly believed in God. If it was just perfect and without sin then no one would stray from God knowing the commandments. Then again at the same time I understand the world in a much different way than if it was perfect and without sin. I am aware of the good and the bad and know that people can be seriously corrupt. When there is no laws to judge someone by, then there is no need to judge if they are good or bad.

Chariots of Fire 2

To say that God created some of the commandments after one another could possibly be true. To think God put people on this Earth with everything planed out and ideas such as “rules” written out would be astounding. Also if God had everything in place when he first created Adam and Eve, that would be surreal. To create some of these commandments after seems like a lesson that helped his creations or people. Whoever would have thought that some of the commandments were delayed. If you thought about it in today’s society though, it would just be like additions to the constitution or new laws that are passed. This idea has really got me thinking.

Chariots of Fire 2

To say that God created some of the commandments after one another could possibly be true. To think God put people on this Earth with everything planed out and ideas such as “rules” written out would be astounding. Also if God had everything in place when he first created Adam and Eve, that would be surreal. To create some of these commandments after seems like a lesson that helped his creations or people. Whoever would have thought that some of the commandments were delayed. If you thought about it in today’s society though, it would just be like additions to the constitution or new laws that are passed. This idea has really got me thinking.

Pulp Fiction 1

I feel as if the ten commandments were simply a way of God setting boundaries. He knew we are to break them, but to what extent. It's as if he planned it. When your mother tells you not to do something, you do it to see the results. It's as if God planned these commandments so we would break them, then he would see how we would respond. Whether we kept breaking them or if we would ask for forgiveness from the Lord. I could be way off, but this is how i feel when he had the Commandments conducted.

True Grit 12

The idea that the ten commandments were not all created at the same time is an idea I have never pondered. The story of Moses coming down from the mountain in Exodus 20 always seemed fairly clear cut to me, but I have also not looked at the Bible from a translators perspective. It is an interesting thought and leads me to think that, if in fact God did create the commandments at different times, were these commandments based on "new" sins that humans were committing? For example, would the commandment not to steal only become necessary after people had begun stealing, and would that have developed after people began worshiping false gods?

Praying with Lior 2

It is really important to understand the history of the Ten Commandments to try and fully understand their meaning. The Ten Commandments are the fundamental building block to Christianity. Everyone learns them at a very young age and is told that the Ten Commandments are the correct ways to lead your life. A slight misinterpretation from the time period that they originated could alter the meaning behind it and potentially the entire commandment.

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    wide-ranging blog by Airton José da Silva, Professor de Bíblia Hebraica/Antigo Testamento na Faculdade de Teologia do CEARP de Ribeirão Preto, Brasile (in Portuguese)
  • Observatório Bíblico
    Blog sobre estudos acadêmicos da Bíblia, para Airton José da Silva, Professor de Bíblia Hebraica / Antigo Testamento na Faculdade de Teologia do CEARP de Ribeirão Preto, SP.
  • Occasional Publications
    excellent blogging by Daniel Driver, Brevard Childs' scholar extraordinaire
  • old testament passion
    Great stuff from Anthony Loke, a Methodist pastor and Old Testament lecturer in the Seminari Theoloji, Malaysia
  • Old Testament Pseudepigrapha Blog
    A weblog created for a course on the Old Testament Pseudepigrapha at the University of St. Andrews, Scotland, by James Davila (archive)
  • On the Main Line
    Mississippi Fred MacDowell's musings on Hebraica and Judaica. With a name like that you can't go wrong.
  • p.ost an evangelical theology for the age to come
    seeking to retell the biblical story in the difficult transition from the centre to the margins following the collapse of Western Christendom, by Andrew Perriman, independent New Testament scholar, currently located in Dubai
  • PaleoJudaica
    by James Davila, professor of Early Jewish Studies at the University of St. Andrews, St Andrews, Scotland. Judaism and the Bible in the news; tidbits about ancient Judaism and its context
  • Pastoral Epistles
    by Rick Brannan and friends, a conceptually unique Bible blog
  • Pen and Parchment
    Michael Patton and company don't just think outside the box. They are tearing down its walls.
  • Pisteuomen
    by Michael Halcomb, pastor-scholar from the Bluegrass State
  • Pseudo-Polymath
    by Mark Olson, an Orthodox view on things
  • Purging my soul . . . one blog at a time
    great theoblog by Sam Nunnally
  • Qumranica
    weblog for a course on the Dead Sea Scrolls at the University of St. Andrews, Scotland, taught by James R. Davila (archive)
  • Ralph the Sacred River
    by Edward Cook, a superb Aramaist
  • Random Bloggings
    by Calvin Park, M. Div. student at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary, South Hamilton MA
  • Resident aliens
    reflections of one not at home in this world
  • Revelation is Real
    Strong-minded comment from Tony Siew, lecturer at Trinity Theological College, Singapore
  • Ricoblog
    by Rick Brannan, it's the baby pictures I like the most
  • Rightly Dividing the Word of Truth
    Nick Norelli's fabulous blog on Bible and theology
  • SansBlogue
    by Tim Bulkeley, lecturer in Old Testament, Carey Baptist College (New Zealand). His Hypertext Commentary on Amos is an interesting experiment
  • Ancient Near Eastern Languages
    texts and files to help people learn some ancient languages in self study, by Mike Heiser
  • Midrash, etc.
    A fine Hebrew-to-English blog on Midrash, by Carl Kinbar, Director of the New School for Jewish Studies and a facultm member at MJTI School of Jewish Studies.
  • Phil Lembo what I'm thinking
    a recovering lawyer, now in IT, with a passion for a faith worth living
  • Roses and Razorwire
    a top-notch Levantine archaeology blog, by Owen Chesnut, a doctoral student at Andrews University (MI)
  • Scripture & Theology
    a communal weblog dedicated to the intersection of biblical interpretation and the articulation of church doctrine, by Daniel Driver, Phil Sumpter, and others
  • Scripture Zealot
    by Jeff Contrast
  • Serving the Word
    incisive comment on the Hebrew Bible and related ancient matters, with special attention to problems of philology and linguistic anthropology, by Seth L. Sanders, Assistant Professor in the Religion Department of Trinity College, Hartford, CT
  • Singing in the Reign
    NT blog by Michael Barber (JP University) and Brad Pitre (Our Lady Holy Cross)
  • Stay Curious
    excellent comment on Hebrew Bible and Hebrew language topics, by Karyn Traphagen, graduate, Westminster Theological Seminary, Philadelphia PA (archive)
  • Sufficiency
    A personal take on the faith delivered to the saints, by Bob MacDonald, whose parallel blog on the Psalms in Hebrew is a colorful and innovative experiment
  • The Sundry Times
    Gary Zimmerli's place, with comment on Bible translations and church renewal
  • Sunestauromai: living the crucified life
    by a scholar-pastor based in the Grand Canyon National Park
  • ta biblia
    blog dedicated to the New Testament and the history of Christian origins, by Giovanni Bazzana
  • Targuman
    by Christian Brady, targum specialist extraordinaire, and dean of Schreyer Honors College, Penn State University
  • Targuman
    on biblical and rabbinic literature, Christian theology, gadgetry, photography, and the odd comic, by Christian Brady, associate professor of ancient Hebrew and Jewish literature and dean of the Schreyer Honors College at Penn State
  • The Biblia Hebraica Blog
    a blog about Hebrew Bible/Old Testament, the history of the Ancient Near East and the classical world, Syro-Palestinian archaeology, early Judaism, early Christianity, New Testament interpretation, English Bible translations, biblical theology, religion and culture, philosophy, science fiction, and anything else relevant to the study of the Bible, by Douglas Magnum, PhD candidate, University of the Free State, South Africa
  • The Forbidden Gospels Blog
    by April DeConick, Professor of Biblical Studies, Rice University
  • The Naked Bible
    by Mike Heiser, academic editor at Logos Bible Software
  • The Reformed Reader
    by Andrew Compton, Ph.D. student in the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures (focus on Hebrew and Semitic Languages) at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)
  • The Sacred Page
    a blog written by three Catholic Ph.D.s who are professors of Scripture and Theology: Michael Barber, Brant Pitre and John Bergsma
  • The Talmud Blog
    a group blog on Talmud News, Reviews, Culture, Currents, and Criticism
  • Theological German
    a site for reading and discussing theological German, by Mark Alter
  • theoutwardquest
    seeking spirituality as an outward, not an inward quest, by David Corder
  • This Lamp
    Incisive comment on Bible translations in the archives, by Rick Mansfield
  • Thoughts on Antiquity
    By Chris Weimer and friends, posts of interest on ancient Greek and Roman topics (archive). Chris is a graduate student at the City University of New York in Classics
  • Threads from Henry's Web
    Wide-ranging comment by Henry Neufeld, educator, publisher, and author
  • Tête-à-Tête-Tête
    smart commentary by "smijer," a Unitarian-Universalist
  • Undeception
    A great blog by Mike Douglas, a graduate student in biblical studies
  • What I Learned From Aristotle
    the Judaica posts are informative (archive)
  • Bouncing into Graceland
    a delightful blog on biblical and theological themes, by Esteban Vázquez (archive)
  • Weblog
    by Justin Anthony Knapp, a fearless Wikipedian (archive)
  • Writing in the Dust
    A collection of quotes by Wesley Hill, a doctoral student in New Testament studies at Durham University (UK), and a Christian who seeks the charism of chastity
  • גֵּר־וְתוֹשָׁב
    by David Miller, Associate Professor of New Testament and Early Judaism, Briercrest College & Seminary, Caronport, Saskatchewan, Canada
  • ואל-תמכר
    Buy truth and do not sell: wisdom, instruction, and understanding - a blog by Mitchell Powell, student of life at the intersection of Christ, Christianity, and Christendom
  • משלי אדם
    exploring wisdom literature, religion, and other academic pursuits, by Adam Couturier, M.A. in Old Testament/Hebrew Bible (graduate of Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary)

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  • Ancient Hebrew Poetry is a weblog of John F. Hobbins. Opinions expressed herein do not reflect those of his professional affiliations. Unless otherwise indicated, the contents of Ancient Hebrew Poetry, including all text, images, and other media, are original and licensed under a Creative Commons License.

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