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Scripture Zealot

Do you have any examples of what's said below? I'm not saying do the work for me, just wondering if you or anyone else knows of anything off the top of your head.

Also, it's hard to imagine how bad it could be if it's so similar to the ESV.

"All the way through the NRSV, implying that Paul has all these liberated concepts and so forth like the current politically correct person in an Ivy League school: I mean that's just ridiculous. Here you have the imposition of liberal prejudice on the biblical text with the ridiculous assumption that our modern liberal views were Paul's."



Hi Jeff,

That's a very good question.

I happen to know of a couple of Jewett's examples, but not more than that. He was incensed by NRSV 2 Thes 3:12 because it has Paul exhorting people to work quietly and "earn their own living." That, he said (Paul, the Apostle of America, p. 85), gave the text an individualistic, capitalistic bent whereas "the food that people ate" was consumed during communal meals, family-style in which the whole church was a "God-taught" family. This has to do with Jewett's carefully argued thesis of tenement churches and a continuation of the Acts 2:42-45 model in Pauline Christianity.

He's right on, I think, but you can count the number of people on one hand who care as much as he and I that the historical particularities of Pauline Christianity be brought out, not disguised, in translation.

Another example is NRSV 1 Thessalonians 4:4-6, revised to be gender-inclusive though that warps the plainly androcentric focus of the passage which, furthermore, is about "procuring a vessel" = acquiring a wife (so, rightly, NAB), not controlling one's body.

BTW, ESV translation choices in both loci are almost as politically correct and petit-bourgeois as those of NRSV.

For discussion, see the previously cited volume, chapter 4, the Sexual Liberation of Paul and his Churches.

Scary, I suppose. I trained with fiercely egal scholars who even so would scream bloody murder if you introduced surreptitiously even one drop of egalitarianism into the text that wasn't there.

Hope that helps.

Scripture Zealot

Thank you. NRSV used to be my favorite translation but I still use it because my notes and highlighting are in there so I'm always interested in information on it.

It seems like almost every translation has its stories. The NIV being changed by stylists, ESV wasn't given much time, HCSB didn't take people's advice etc.


Hello John,

Thank you for your enjoyable blog.

You wrote:

"the passage which, furthermore, is about "procuring a vessel" = acquiring a wife (so, rightly, NAB), not controlling one's body."

Speaking of NAB, I'm wondering how you would rate it as a translation.



On 1 Thess 4:4, Jamiesson-Fausset-Brown has:

[Quote.]"how to possess his vessel-rather as Greek, "how to acquire (get for himself) his own vessel," that is, that each should have his own wife so as to avoid fornication (1Th 4:3; 1Co 7:2). The emphatical position of "his own" in the Greek, and the use of "vessel" for wife, in 1Pe 3:7, and in common Jewish phraseology, and the correct translation "acquire," all justify this rendering.
in sanctification-(Ro 6:19; 1Co 6:15, 18). Thus, "his own" stands in opposition to dishonoring his brother by lusting after his wife (1Th 4:6).
honour-(Heb 13:4) contrasted with "dishonor their own bodies" (Ro 1:24)."[End Quote]

The NET Bible (which I don't often trust, but...) note reads,

[Quote] "tn Grk “to gain [or possess] his own vessel.” “Vessel” is most likely used figuratively for “body” (cf. 2 Cor 4:7). Some take it to mean “wife” (thus, “to take a wife for himself” or “to live with his wife”), but this is less likely. See J. Smith, “1 Thess 4:4 – Breaking the Impasse,” BBR 10 (Fall 2000), who argues that “vessel” in this context is very likely a euphemism for the sexual organs.".[End Quote]

Robertson's Word Pictures (here sourced from bible.crosswalk) has:

[Quote]To possess himself of his own vessel (to eautou skeuoß ktasqai). Present middle infinitive of ktaomai, to acquire, not kekthsqai, to possess. But what does Paul mean by "his own vessel"? It can only mean his own body or his own wife. Objections are raised against either view, but perhaps he means that the man shall acquire his own wife "in sanctification and honour," words that elevate the wife and make it plain that Paul demands sexual purity on the part of men (married as well as unmarried). There is no double standard here. When the husband comes to the marriage bed, he should come as a chaste man to a chaste wife.[/Quote]

This is highly interesting: never heard of this till now! JohnFH, any (laymen's) reasons you could give why it's one way and not the other? Again, normally I don't trust the NET (too many people warning of poor reasoning and errors: and recently I talked to some gal involved with that site and, I think, the translation as well, who was supposedly educated in Greek, but who made horrific blunders at every turn..."bye!"), but every once in a while one learns something by giving the benefit of the doubt...and letting someone more knowledgeable rip an argument to shreds. : )


In the [Quote] ... [/Quote] one can see I "do" html (though it uses < & >). : ) I meant to put [End Quote] at the end!

Kevin P. Edgecomb

I read, probably in one of Metzger's accounts of the NRSV work, that more than one of the translators left the project once they were confronted with the inclusive language changes. Seeing how awful the NRSV Psalms are, I'll bet whoever did the work on Psalms was irate. In places the mizzare language to avoid a generic masculine pronoun is simply no longer comprehensible English.

The papers, including presumably all drafts, of the NRSV are preserved at Princeton. It wouldn't be too difficult to recover the NRSV intended by the full committee before its tampering. I'm sure it would be a much better translation, in fact. I'd be extremely happy if this translation were cleaned up of its fuzzy-headedness, and made a properly scholarly translation fully.

The NRSV: Beauty and the Beast.


Jeff and John,

This is my bottom line. I would encourage you not to expect any translation to be free of problems large and small.

In a specific instance, it is possible, when they differ, that any of the available translations is right, and the others wrong.

ESV, NRSV, and NAB are among the best translations available, apart from the question of what kind of translation technique is preferable for what purpose.

NAB 1 Thes 4:4, based on what Greek I've read, seems to be on the right track. For greater assurance, I would have to do the kind of serious research that leads to a re-examination of a large set of relevant passages.

Kevin P. Edgecomb

What an amusing typo, "mizzare," in reference to gender-neutral language. "Bizzare" was intended, of course.


"Mizzaro" reminds me of the word "mizzica" in Sicilian. You don't want to know what it means.

Thanks, Kevin, BTW, for your blogging about Neusner. What a treat.

Scripture Zealot

Thanks for the info.

By saying, "they all have their stories" I wasn't meaning that I'm looking for the perfect one that has the perfect committee and translation philosophy and environment, just that the NRSV probably isn't any more "troubled" than just about any other.

It certainly would be interesting to see what they have at Princeton.



Darn, now I'll really really have to learn Greek (and Hebrew of course...even knowing very little it's yet odd that the beatitudes of Matthew drop "to be" wherever the verb ought be!): one of those minds that just doesn't give-up when it's curious (why I like science)...hope it doesn't kill me: maybe I can use a cat as a shield for the radiation. : )

Any suggestions as to passages where to get started on that research question...resources? Claims to begin investigating? Greek sources (biblical or otherwise)? Hebrew ones?

Nothing that'll take too much of your time, just a starting point.

Thanks again, however, for pointing it out; having been in evangelical churches myself it's a question that I think many people could benefit from, that is, from it being investigated and answered! (Probably a whole lot of men going 'how the heck do I approach that 'thing' (a female), they just don't make any sense...) ; )



Familiarity with ancient literature in Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek is not the only prerequisite to doing independent research in the interpretation of the New Testament. A reading knowledge of French and German is also essential. The two most important commentaries on Paul’s Thessalonian correspondence are those of Dobschutz (German) and Rigaux (French).

Here are some excerpts from Mauer’s TDNT article on σκεῦος:

1 Th. 4:4 is much debated: εἰδέναι ἕκαστον ὑμῶν τὸ ἐαυτοῦ σκεῦος κτᾶσθαι ἐν ἁγιασμῷ καὶ τιμῇ. From the time of the fathers two different interpretations have been proposed for σκεῦος: body (Tert. De resurrectione mortuorum, 16, 11 f. (CCh, 2, 940); Chrys. Hom. in 1 Th. 5, ad loc. (MPG, 62 [1862], 424): Thdrt. Interpretatio ad 1 Th., ad loc. (MPG, 82 [1864], 424); Pelagius Expositiones tredecim epistularum Pauli (ed. A. Souter, TSt, IX2 [1926], 429, ad loc.); Ambrosiaster Comm. on 1 Th., ad loc. (MPL, 17 [1879], 473); J. Calvin, Comm. on 1 Th., ad loc. (Corp. Ref., 80, 161): H. Grotius, Annotationes in NT (1756), ad loc.; Bengel, Dib. Th.3, Schl. Erl., ad loc.; B. Rigaux, St. Paul, Les Epîtres aux Thess. (1956), ad loc.; cf. also Dob. Th. and Rigaux, ad loc. for further details) and wife (Theod. Mops. Comm. on 1 Th., ad loc. (MPG, 66 [1864], 932): Aug. Contra Julianum Pelagianum, IV, 10 (MPL, 44 [1865]. 765): Dob. Th., Wbg. Th., ad loc.; A. Oepke, Die Br. an die Thess., NT Deutsch, 87 (1955), ad loc.; G. Delling, Pls. Stellung zu Frau u. Ehe (1931), 61, n. 36; W. Vogel, “εἰδέναι τὸ ἑαυτοῦ σκεῦος κτᾶσθαι,” ThBl, 13 (1934), 83–85 etc.).

In favor of the former a few parallels may be adduced from the Greek world in which the body is the container of the soul. In favor of the second one may cite the Jewish euphemism whereby the woman is called a vessel.

A further question is whether the present κτᾶσθαι is to be given the ingressive sense “to gain” or whether it may have the durative sense normally expressed by the perfect, i.e., “to possess.” The former does not go at all with the meaning “body,” while the latter yields the sense “to have the body in one’s power.” If σκεῦος refers to the woman then either the unmarried in Thessalonica are being urged to marry as a remedy against fornication (ingressive sense) or those who are married are being told to hold their own wives in esteem (durative sense). It is not easy to make a clear-cut decision between the various alternatives. The parallels to σκεῦος do not offer convincing support either one way or the other. The best way is not to examine the two words σκεῦος and κτᾶσθαι individually but to relate the whole expression to the larger linguistic context and to consider the reciprocal interaction between Greek and Hebrew usage.

The point at which to begin is the OT and Jewish בָּעַל אִשָּׁה. In the OT בעל has two senses: 1. gen. a. (ingressive) “to take in possession” Jer. 3:14; 31:32; b. (durative) “to be lord, owner” Jer. 26:13; 2. special with or without woman as obj. a. (ingressive) “to woo a wife,” “to become lord and master in marriage” Dt. 21:13; 24:1 etc.; b. (durative) “to possess a wife,” “to be a husband” Dt. 22:22; Is. 54:1. Since in the commencement and continuation of marriage acc. to OT and Jewish law the beginning and continuation of sexual relations is an essential part, בעל ingressively refers not merely to marriage in gen. but specifically to the establishment of sexual intercourse as its basis.

This alone clarifies the text of Dt. 21:13; 24:1; Is. 62:5. This is also why at these and other places the LXX, also Σ at Prv. 30:23, transl. בעל by συνοικεῖν, συνοικίζειν, “to live in sexual fellowship, as married people.” The durative form of בעל is found esp. in the participial בְּעֻלַת־בַּעַל, “the woman belonging to a man as (bride) wife,” transl. by the LXX at Gn. 20:3 by συνῳκηκυῖα ἀνδρί, “the woman who has taken up (and who continues in) sexual relations with a man.” Rabb. Judaism detaches בעל from its basic meaning “to be lord” and uses it as a tt. for the consummation of sexual intercourse whether within marriage or outside it. Comments on Dt. 24:1 are consistently to this effect. Thus בָּעַל־אִשָּׁה comes to mean “to take a woman sexually,” and in relation to marriage this might be either ingressive or durative.

In the Jewish Hell. sphere there is a parallel shifting of emphasis from the purely ingressive aspect to the durative in the verb κτᾶσθαι. As in class. Gk., e.g., Xenoph. Sym., 2, 10, so in the LXX we find the ingressive κτᾶσθαι γυναῖκα, “to woo or marry a wife,” Sir. 36:24; Rt. 4:10. But in the Jewish sphere, under the influence of the similar development of בעל, κτᾶσθαι comes to have a stronger durative sense. This is apparent in Is. 26:13, where the LXX takes בְּעָלוּנוּ, “(sc. alien lords) have ruled over us,” as an imperative and transl. it by κτῆσαι ἡμᾶς, which obviously has to be durative: “Be lord over us, reign over us.” In bibl. Gk., therefore, the examples of the dnrative sense of non-perfect forms of κτᾶσθαι take on greater importance: πίστιν κτήσασθαι “to keep faith,” Sir. 22:23; ἐν τῇ ὑπομονῇ ὑμῶν κτήσεσθε τάς ψυχὰς ὑμῶν, “by your patience you will preserve your lives,” Lk. 21:19.

The fact that בעל and κτᾶσθαι are thus parallel suggests that Paul, who spoke both Hebrew and Greek, would translate the Hebrew tt. בָּעַל אִשָּׁה (“to possess a woman sexually”) by κτᾶσθαι γυναῖκα, thus imparting a durative sense to the Greek phrase. Under the influence of the Jewish euphemism שָׁמַשׁ כְּלִי he is led, then, to the new expression σκεῦος κτᾶσθαι, “to use a woman as a vessel (instrument).”

In the light of this linguistic development, which would be possible for any bilingual Jew and not just for Paul alone, the most probable interpretation of 1 Th. 4:3 f. is as follows: “For this is the will of God, even your sanctification, that you keep yourselves from fornication, that every one of you know how to hold his own vessel in sanctification and honour (i.e., live with his wife in sanctification and honor), not in passionate Just like the Gentiles who know not God.”

Materially, then, the phrase εἰδέναι ἕκαστον ὑμῶν τὸ ἑαυτοῦ σκεῦος κτᾶσθαι, which is linked with the warning against fornication, corresponds exactly to 1 C. 7:2: διὰ δὲ τὰς πορνείας ἕκαστος τὴν ἑαυτοῦ γυναῖκα ἐχέτω. Material as well as linguistic considerations favor “wife” rather than “body” in interpretation of 1 Th. 4:4.

Not even in 2 C. 4:7 does Paul show any acquaintance with the idea of the body as the container of the soul or the individual ego. One never finds in him an individual ethics centered on the body. On the other hand, the demand for a marriage lived in sanctification is reminiscent of Jewish traditions. According to Wis. 13–14, which is used in R. 1, the Gentiles do not know God and consequently they do not know the meaning of marriage. Hence in 1 Th. 4:3 ff., referring to the knowledge of God now accessible in the Gospel, Paul presents the antithesis between ἁγιασμός and ἀκαθαρσία and puts the following demands: Renounce free and unbridled love (v. 3b); keep your own marriage holy (v. 4), the opposite of the uncontrolled expression of desire (v. 5); and respect your brother’s marriage (v. 6).

1 Pt. 3:7, which is influenced by 1 Th. 4:4, is thus a correct commentary on Paul when it uses σκεῦος for the wife and interprets בעל/κτᾶσθαι as συνοικεῖν: “Likewise you men, live according to knowledge with your wife as the weaker vessel.” συνοικοῦντες and ἀπονέμοντες are two participial imperatives which find a common conclusion in the final clause εἰς τὸ μὴ ἐγκόπτεσθαι τὰς προθευχὰς ὑμῶν. Thus the physical marriage relationship is linked to the ordination of the partners to the future inheritance.

Kevin P. Edgecomb

I think the New Oxford Annotated Bible with the full RSV may be the only nice edition of the complete RSV still in print. Though that link lists it as hardback, the picture is of the leather-bound edition.

I'll be interested to see the ESV with Apocrypha. I wonder which Tobit they'll do, and whether they'll do continuous Greek Esther as the NRSV did, rather than only the disparate "additions," which is never very satisfying (thanks, Jerome!).



Thanks for pointing that out. A brief search had led me to think that RSV was out of print altogether.

Kevin P. Edgecomb

You're welcome, John. I think it mostly is, which is really unfortunate. Cambridge lists an edition, too, but it's unclear whether it includes the Apocrypha. Probably not.


Well thanks for doing the research for me! I realized I should likely learn German, and thought French would be a good idea (at least if one wanted to read the Institutes, etc.); I thought Latin would likely be more important than French (and I'm considering Latin before taking French since it could facilitate that learning; I'm also acquainted with Spanish semi-comfortably already, though rusty, and Latin is similar to Greek in many respects, so I thought it would be worth for experience in case endings). Thanks for the pointers, however, and I appreciate the very considerate commentary on the passage: something to point-out to my fellow evangelicals (though qualifying that term, I could be considered a "paleo-evangelical" vs. the "neo-" sort; out of the novel and into the antiquated [smile]).

And speaking of languages, I found it interesting to compare certain Spanish verb uses to the Greek: without too much Greek I could recognize, for instance, in Matthew five the use of the verb as "he began speaking"; it was a little odd but I couldn't shake that sense; I know one must be careful since languages use things differently, but I suppose the effort can really pay off between them.

Do you think, however, it would be worthwhile for students to get the different resources and studies on all this translated into English?


p.s. How useful do you think it would be to learn Arabic? Since a lot of modern Hebrew knowledge derives from it comparatively with Hebrew? (Theories on the consonants and what have you.)



I look forward to the day when ancient literature in its entirety will be available online, in the original languages, in translation, and with detailed commentary. It's a simple, straightforward dream that, for the moment, is being realized in a piece-meal fashion.

A paleo-evangelical will, in an ideal world, want to be able to read Latin, French, and German, besides the biblical languages. I would only say that it pays to learn another language very well, so that you can pick up something written in it and just read, without having to resort to a dictionary very often.

All the languages you mention are valuable from a variety of points of view.


Your presentation was very informative but I do disagree. Instead of going into it I would recommend to anyone who wants the opposing postion(and in my opinion more accurate) these men's commentaries on 1 Thessalonians: F.F. Bruce
Charles Wanamaker
I.Howard Marshall

I really believe that translating σκεῦος as wife is untenable and 1 Peter 3:7 is incoherent and self refuting among other things.




Thanks for pointing out presentations of alternative views. However, I wonder if you are being too harsh on 1 Peter 3:7.

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  • Observatório Bíblico
    wide-ranging blog by Airton José da Silva, Professor de Bíblia Hebraica/Antigo Testamento na Faculdade de Teologia do CEARP de Ribeirão Preto, Brasile (in Portuguese)
  • Observatório Bíblico
    Blog sobre estudos acadêmicos da Bíblia, para Airton José da Silva, Professor de Bíblia Hebraica / Antigo Testamento na Faculdade de Teologia do CEARP de Ribeirão Preto, SP.
  • Occasional Publications
    excellent blogging by Daniel Driver, Brevard Childs' scholar extraordinaire
  • old testament passion
    Great stuff from Anthony Loke, a Methodist pastor and Old Testament lecturer in the Seminari Theoloji, Malaysia
  • Old Testament Pseudepigrapha Blog
    A weblog created for a course on the Old Testament Pseudepigrapha at the University of St. Andrews, Scotland, by James Davila (archive)
  • On the Main Line
    Mississippi Fred MacDowell's musings on Hebraica and Judaica. With a name like that you can't go wrong.
  • p.ost an evangelical theology for the age to come
    seeking to retell the biblical story in the difficult transition from the centre to the margins following the collapse of Western Christendom, by Andrew Perriman, independent New Testament scholar, currently located in Dubai
  • PaleoJudaica
    by James Davila, professor of Early Jewish Studies at the University of St. Andrews, St Andrews, Scotland. Judaism and the Bible in the news; tidbits about ancient Judaism and its context
  • Pastoral Epistles
    by Rick Brannan and friends, a conceptually unique Bible blog
  • Pen and Parchment
    Michael Patton and company don't just think outside the box. They are tearing down its walls.
  • Pisteuomen
    by Michael Halcomb, pastor-scholar from the Bluegrass State
  • Pseudo-Polymath
    by Mark Olson, an Orthodox view on things
  • Purging my soul . . . one blog at a time
    great theoblog by Sam Nunnally
  • Qumranica
    weblog for a course on the Dead Sea Scrolls at the University of St. Andrews, Scotland, taught by James R. Davila (archive)
  • Ralph the Sacred River
    by Edward Cook, a superb Aramaist
  • Random Bloggings
    by Calvin Park, M. Div. student at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary, South Hamilton MA
  • Resident aliens
    reflections of one not at home in this world
  • Revelation is Real
    Strong-minded comment from Tony Siew, lecturer at Trinity Theological College, Singapore
  • Ricoblog
    by Rick Brannan, it's the baby pictures I like the most
  • Rightly Dividing the Word of Truth
    Nick Norelli's fabulous blog on Bible and theology
  • SansBlogue
    by Tim Bulkeley, lecturer in Old Testament, Carey Baptist College (New Zealand). His Hypertext Commentary on Amos is an interesting experiment
  • Ancient Near Eastern Languages
    texts and files to help people learn some ancient languages in self study, by Mike Heiser
  • Midrash, etc.
    A fine Hebrew-to-English blog on Midrash, by Carl Kinbar, Director of the New School for Jewish Studies and a facultm member at MJTI School of Jewish Studies.
  • Phil Lembo what I'm thinking
    a recovering lawyer, now in IT, with a passion for a faith worth living
  • Roses and Razorwire
    a top-notch Levantine archaeology blog, by Owen Chesnut, a doctoral student at Andrews University (MI)
  • Scripture & Theology
    a communal weblog dedicated to the intersection of biblical interpretation and the articulation of church doctrine, by Daniel Driver, Phil Sumpter, and others
  • Scripture Zealot
    by Jeff Contrast
  • Serving the Word
    incisive comment on the Hebrew Bible and related ancient matters, with special attention to problems of philology and linguistic anthropology, by Seth L. Sanders, Assistant Professor in the Religion Department of Trinity College, Hartford, CT
  • Singing in the Reign
    NT blog by Michael Barber (JP University) and Brad Pitre (Our Lady Holy Cross)
  • Stay Curious
    excellent comment on Hebrew Bible and Hebrew language topics, by Karyn Traphagen, graduate, Westminster Theological Seminary, Philadelphia PA (archive)
  • Sufficiency
    A personal take on the faith delivered to the saints, by Bob MacDonald, whose parallel blog on the Psalms in Hebrew is a colorful and innovative experiment
  • The Sundry Times
    Gary Zimmerli's place, with comment on Bible translations and church renewal
  • Sunestauromai: living the crucified life
    by a scholar-pastor based in the Grand Canyon National Park
  • ta biblia
    blog dedicated to the New Testament and the history of Christian origins, by Giovanni Bazzana
  • Targuman
    by Christian Brady, targum specialist extraordinaire, and dean of Schreyer Honors College, Penn State University
  • Targuman
    on biblical and rabbinic literature, Christian theology, gadgetry, photography, and the odd comic, by Christian Brady, associate professor of ancient Hebrew and Jewish literature and dean of the Schreyer Honors College at Penn State
  • The Biblia Hebraica Blog
    a blog about Hebrew Bible/Old Testament, the history of the Ancient Near East and the classical world, Syro-Palestinian archaeology, early Judaism, early Christianity, New Testament interpretation, English Bible translations, biblical theology, religion and culture, philosophy, science fiction, and anything else relevant to the study of the Bible, by Douglas Magnum, PhD candidate, University of the Free State, South Africa
  • The Forbidden Gospels Blog
    by April DeConick, Professor of Biblical Studies, Rice University
  • The Naked Bible
    by Mike Heiser, academic editor at Logos Bible Software
  • The Reformed Reader
    by Andrew Compton, Ph.D. student in the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures (focus on Hebrew and Semitic Languages) at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)
  • The Sacred Page
    a blog written by three Catholic Ph.D.s who are professors of Scripture and Theology: Michael Barber, Brant Pitre and John Bergsma
  • The Talmud Blog
    a group blog on Talmud News, Reviews, Culture, Currents, and Criticism
  • Theological German
    a site for reading and discussing theological German, by Mark Alter
  • theoutwardquest
    seeking spirituality as an outward, not an inward quest, by David Corder
  • This Lamp
    Incisive comment on Bible translations in the archives, by Rick Mansfield
  • Thoughts on Antiquity
    By Chris Weimer and friends, posts of interest on ancient Greek and Roman topics (archive). Chris is a graduate student at the City University of New York in Classics
  • Threads from Henry's Web
    Wide-ranging comment by Henry Neufeld, educator, publisher, and author
  • Tête-à-Tête-Tête
    smart commentary by "smijer," a Unitarian-Universalist
  • Undeception
    A great blog by Mike Douglas, a graduate student in biblical studies
  • What I Learned From Aristotle
    the Judaica posts are informative (archive)
  • Bouncing into Graceland
    a delightful blog on biblical and theological themes, by Esteban Vázquez (archive)
  • Weblog
    by Justin Anthony Knapp, a fearless Wikipedian (archive)
  • Writing in the Dust
    A collection of quotes by Wesley Hill, a doctoral student in New Testament studies at Durham University (UK), and a Christian who seeks the charism of chastity
  • גֵּר־וְתוֹשָׁב
    by David Miller, Associate Professor of New Testament and Early Judaism, Briercrest College & Seminary, Caronport, Saskatchewan, Canada
  • ואל-תמכר
    Buy truth and do not sell: wisdom, instruction, and understanding - a blog by Mitchell Powell, student of life at the intersection of Christ, Christianity, and Christendom
  • משלי אדם
    exploring wisdom literature, religion, and other academic pursuits, by Adam Couturier, M.A. in Old Testament/Hebrew Bible (graduate of Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary)

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  • Ancient Hebrew Poetry is a weblog of John F. Hobbins. Opinions expressed herein do not reflect those of his professional affiliations. Unless otherwise indicated, the contents of Ancient Hebrew Poetry, including all text, images, and other media, are original and licensed under a Creative Commons License.

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