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Mitchell Powell

Resources for an alternative to both are found in scripture.

Is there any way I could talk you into expanding on what you see as the alternative to Occupy and Wall Street?

JohnFH

Hi Mitchell,

I'm guessing that you may have some insights of your own. Why don't we start with them?

Mitchell Powell

If that's what it takes, I'll give it a shot.

I think that the Occupiers are right about there being a class of people who are making money hand over fist by exploiting the volatility of the markets. I also think this class of people is deliberately quiet about the causes of the artificially induced volatility because it is so profitable for them.

So I sympathize with the Occupiers, but only in the same way that I sympathize with the economic concerns of Marxists -- I very much hate their cure but at the very least they have some understanding of the illness.

If as an overconfident twenty-year old I were called upon to lecture Occupiers, Wall Street execs, and policy makers right now on what insights the Bible can give them for solving their problems, it would look something like this:

1. Long-term debt, especially in a democracy, is very harmful on both personal and national levels. Proverbs seems pretty clear about this. At the very least, let's stop encouraging it on the national level by artificially producing a combination of low interest rates and inflation that makes borrowing money so attractive. We also need a serious discussion about whether Deuteronomy 15:1 and Nehemiah 10:31 might provide the basis for laws limiting the length of mortgages and other debts, and whether to default on our national debt.

2. The constant back-and-forth games by which the Fed constantly manipulates the dollar supply and, therefore, the value of the dollar, need to be re-examined in the light of the numerous Scriptural passages which condemn varying weights. Technically, of course, we could argue that the dollar is not a "weight" anymore, but I have a great deal of trouble morally distinguishing the two, especially in light of the pernicious effects of playing around with weights and measures, which have been, perhaps ironically, explained in greatest detail by a pair of agnostic/atheistic Jews: classical liberal Ludwig von Mises and anarchist Murray Rothbard. If they are right, the manipulation of the money supply is the economic cause of constant and massive fluctuations in the markets.

3. Wealth is best gained by means of work, the Proverbs way, rather than through number games. For decades a great horde of financial advisors have tried to sell the average American on the notion that gains won on the stock market are a viable way for the average Joe to make gobs of cash (usually through allegedly safe investments like mutual funds). In economic terms, the idea that there is automatic money to be had via the stock market (as distinguished from the banking sector) bears strong affinities to a Ponzi scheme.

4. Covetousness is banned in the Ten Commandments for a reason. Politics of envy, even if they are done with the intention of bettering the world, are a destructive force. There will always be rich and poor -- to try to get rid of oppression through taxes is rather like trying to do open heart surgery with a hammer.

Okay. I've showed you mine . . .

John Hobbins

Hi Mitchell,

Than you for a thoughtful attempt to address some of the most pressing issues of the day in light of law, wisdom, and perhaps a sliver of gospel.

What you refer to as overconfidence is a gift. I would call it the audacity of hope if someone else had not used that phrase and emptied it of credibility.

I will start elsewhere. My point of departure I consider that of "secular" prophecy, that is, an honest indictment from the inside of my generation (not yours). (It's pretty likely that the roots of this self-critique have a solid Catholic base, but I don't know that for a fact.)

I quote from a famous op-ed of less than a year ago, by Nicola Rossi (b. 1951), one of the few Italian politicians worth hearing out - every country, I would hope, by the grace of God, has one or two, the rest being smoochers, sycophants, and poppycocks. The title of his op-ed: "The Failure of a Generation."

Adulti — uomini e donne, a destra e a sinistra — ... per due decadi non hanno esitato a consumare quel che c’era e, soprattutto, quel che non c’era. L’anomalia vera è la mia generazione: la stessa che oggi guarda i più giovani con occhio umido e li considera come una sfortunata eccezione.

Adults, men and women, of the Right and of the Left ... for two decades did not hesitate to consume whatever there was, and, especially, whatever there wasn't: the same generation that today looks at younger generations with damp eyes and considers them an unfortunate exception.

End quote. Rossi is an economist of the non-stupid variety - therefore without "dimora fissa" - with no place to lay his head, politically speaking.

Among the things he said when he resigned from the Italian Senate (his letter of resignation was rejected by a large majority, by political opponents and allies alike):

Ho solo voluto smentire una delle tante favole che negli ultimi tempi hanno trovato credito soprattutto a sinistra: l’idea ingenua e fuorviante che l’evoluzione dell’umanità sia un processo lineare le cui interruzioni sono da considerarsi anomalie. Spiace, ma così non è. Così non è mai stato. E’ capitato a molti di sperimentare condizioni di vita e livelli di benessere inferiori rispetto a quelli sperimentari dalle generazioni precedenti. I giovani di oggi non sono i primi e non saranno gli ultimi. E la strada che hanno davanti è la stessa dei tanti che hanno in passato affrontato simili difficoltà e hanno saputo risalire la china: rimboccarsi le maniche, studiare e lavorare di più e meglio per riconquistare i perduti livelli di benessere, accettare la realtà e affrontarla a viso aperto, piegandola se necessario e quando possibile”.

I wanted to give the lie to one of the many fables that has been believed and professed on the Left in particular: the ingenuous and misleading idea that the evolution of humanity is to be considered a linear process whose interruptions are to be thought of as anomalies. I'm sorry, but that is not the way it is. It never has been. It has often been the case that a generation has experienced levels of economic prosperity inferior to those of precedent generations. Young people today are not the first and will not be the last to have this experience.

The way ahead for them is the same one that many before them have had to take in order to climb the hill: that of rolling up their sleeves, of studying and working better and harder in order to reconquer the lost levels of economic prosperity; of accepting reality and confronting it with eyes wide open, altering it if necessary and where possible.

End quote. How does the above relate to your remarks? Rossi's comments include a self-indictment your remarks don't (because they don't apply to your generation in the same way as they apply to mine; on the other hand, virtually everyone who participated in the Occupy Wall Street movement belongs to the 1 per cent, globally speaking, so the difference is relative).

But Rossi's comments are like yours in terms of the appeal to notions of basic wisdom about which young people *and* baby boomers are often in denial: we are meant to earn our bread by the sweat of our brow; live within in our means; pass on, not a pile of debts and broken relationships, but a hard-won patrimony of ideals and institutions, to our children and grandchildren.

On the other hand, I don't agree with everything you say about Wall Street. As far as I am concerned, the task of being a fund manager is an honorable profession, one which involves a lot of hard work and due diligence (full disclosure: I sit on the board of a foundation which manages millions of dollars of investments of local congregations, so I am talking a bit about myself and in particular, about a number of fine people (young and old) whom I work with on a regular basis). The goal of a great investment fund ought to be that of sifting and winnowing investment opportunities and picking winners in the sense of genuine wealth creators with a high sense of public responsibility - (yes, I think Jobs and Gates and their respective firms qualify, without wishing to deny in the least the amount of shenanigans both Apple and Microsoft have been involved in; just examples). The unmet challenge has been, to a large extent, that of not vetting companies properly (think Solyndra) or weeding out losers with sufficient ferocity (think Enron).

Your comments deserve more, but I'll stop there for now.

John Anderson

John, a correction. Fortress didn't publish this; Baylor Press did. You may want to remedy that in your opening paragraph; you know me, always wanting to make sure Baylor gets the appropriate kudos!

John Hobbins

Hi John,

Fixed now. Thanks for pointing that out.

TheraP

Two tiny corrections, John: (a) Maybe it's just me, but the "monograph" link leads nowhere. (b) The link for "The Virtue of Hate" leads back to the book you linked just prior (and my copy of that book does not have the essay, which I did find by Googling it).

I sure hope that the LIFE after life includes opportunity for doing the kind of reading that my remaining years (and hopefully remaining cognitive faculties!) are unlikely to hold. Already in college I could see that - but the road ahead is way shorter than the road behind with each passing day...

John Hobbins

Hi Thera,

I redid the links and they work now. Thanks for the heads up.

TheraP

I'm fascinated with the paper you flagged on “The Virtue of Hate” - and in particular I was struck by the contrasts between the most sacred historical moments/most sacred liturgical days (in Christianity versus Judaism - as cited). To recap, the writer asserts that Judaism's most important historical moment is the giving of the Law on Sinai – BUT its most important religious day is the Day of Atonement, versus the crucifixion as Christianity's most important historical moment – BUT Easter as its most important religious day.

There is so much meat in that article worth pondering. With regard to forgiveness, one is tempted to consider that the crucifixion operates as Christ's “answer” to both the Day of Atonement and the giving of the law on Sinai. For Christ's comment from the cross “Father forgive them...” might be considered as both a deed, the ultimate gift to all, and a teaching - the giving of a final “Law" as a new and shocking interpretation of the “greatest commandment” to love God and one's neighbor. For we all "know not what we do" and we all receive the forgiveness at the same time as we are challenged to "pass it on".

How to transform hatred into love: That is Christianity's great mitzvah. For those most severely abused with whom I have worked, it has been an essential spiritual task – to take in their anger, their rage, and allow it to be transformed and returned as love – exactly as Paul described it to the Corinthians. Is it possible, therefore, that we could do something similar within our own hearts for the Jews - to "take in" (as it were) the hatred for their persecutors, allowing it to be transformed by the Spirit into love?

As an aside, I once went to a conference titled: “Spirituality and Healing in Medicine”. If there was a central theme, it was forgiveness and its (documented) healing power - psychologically, spiritually, physically – even allowing the dying to come to greater peace.

Here is a quote I love (from the Ecumenical Patriarch):

"Implore God for the renewal of your hearts and minds; invoke His grace for the salvation of every human person, even – and especially – the least of our brothers and sisters (Mt 25:45); and pray fervently for the transfiguration of the whole world, to the last speck of dust."

Angela Erisman

"It merits, not slavish agreement, but sustained engagement."

Isn't this true of all good scholarship (in terms of what it exacts from a reader) and all good scholars (in terms of the stance they take toward what they read)?

John Hobbins

Hi Thera,

Here are a couple of thoughts. I'm convinced that authentic forgiveness comes at a great price for the forgiver and the forgiven. The Lutheran truth, though one-sided, that there is no forgiveness without repentance (from the side of the forgiven), needs to be filled out with the symmetrical truth, that there is no forgiveness without reconciliation (from the side of the forgiver). And yet how often one or both of these sides never materializes on the ground. Furthermore, I often find it necessary (with Christians) to give people permission *not* to forgive. To be honest (I don't want to scare anyone), I am sometimes known to preach and counsel people to hate those who have harmed them. Paradoxically, this seems to be a stepping stone to authentic forgiveness later on. If I'm not making sense here, let me know.

I also have a question related to forgiving and forgetting. On the one hand, I realize that forgetting is one of the great eschatological promises. It is a wonderful gift, often, to be able to forget. On the other hand, there is a great need in another sense not to forget, past crimes included, but if that is so, then there is a need to combine forgiving with *not* forgetting.

As for Christians helping Jews, that makes sense to me only if we are also able to name ways in which Jews help Christians. You imply that, I think, simply by your willingness to give "The Virtue of Hate" a fair and authentic hearing.

John Hobbins

Hi Angela,

What you say is very true and you say it very well.

BTW, I had a great time reading your Eisenbrauns volume and am now in your debt for a a number of new insights, but I have not yet found the time to collect my thoughts into a review of the kind I am confident you would appreciate.

Mitchell Powell

John,

Thank you for the thoughts. Let me say, for the record, that I don't think that being a hedge fund manager is necessarily dishonorable. There is good and evil in every line of work, including pizza delivery. I do, however, think that there are some huge systemic issues in our economy that need to be addressed, ones which go far beyond the prudent picking of stocks. And I do think that many of the people who are architects and upholders of our current financial order make handfuls of money off it in unjust ways: Newt Gingrich being just one example among many. If I didn't make that sufficiently clear, it is because I was trying to write about politics and economics without giving a massive lecture of how Qui bono? and the "Austrian" theory of the trade cycle have formed my views on economics.

Did Nicola Rossi write anything in English that you would recommend? By combining my rusty Spanish, Latin, and French, I can just barely get through his wikipedia page, let alone anything more complex in Italian. I'm applying most of my linguistic energy to the Mishna right now, so the time I have to work through Italian writing is limited.

Mitchell Powell

PS: With regard to the Occupiers being in the top "1%" worldwide, your point is well taken. Having spent my first five years in and around the slums of Caracas (which were, in turn, called with some justification "the richest slums in the world") I'm well aware of the irony that exists when students here at OSU sip $5 coffees while listening to songs about how the rich have robbed them. Though I spent my first eighteen years officially below the US poverty line (and nothing's changed since then other than a really good scholarship), I know how wealthy I am every time I buy textbooks.

Michael Moore can speak to a large crowd and, with a straight face, tell middle-class Americans that, "Our nation is awash with wealth and cash, but it's just not in your hands." While I live an extremely comfortable life here in a Muslim immigrant neighborhood that is widely considered poor and dangerous by US standards, it is impossible for me to feel any sympathy for the self-pity of the middle class, and it is close to impossible for me to feel any sympathy for the self-pity of the poor people who live around me. (I speak with regard to material standard of living; when it comes to the familial and societal anarchy that many of our poor and others live in, in the US, I am much more concerned.)

If I am concerned about financial dirty deeds, it is not because I am concerned for our material standard of living here in the US, but for the moral and social problems that attend a culture of ripping people off.

TheraP

John, I understand and and I agree with most of your reply. I myself NEVER tell anyone what they "must" do or proscribe things (unless it pertains to suicide or intentional harm of another). I too have supported people who simply knew they could never forgive. And yes, supporting someone's "dug-in" position definitely allows for further reflection down the road and a possible change of mind. (And that goes for more than forgiveness or non-forgiveness.)

However, I'm not sure forgiveness necessitates repentance or even a face to face forgiveness. (You seem to allude to that yourself.) And while I understand where the Rabbi is coming from and feel a sense of compassion for his position (let's face it, it's a pretty common reaction), I really can't describe hate as a virtue. I'd say, rather, that in a hierarchy of goals, he has explained how he'd view hatred as a virtuous choice, in view of his assumed long term consequences.

As for my question, I phrased it that way because I truly had never considered it until I was writing (and revising) my comment. And the idea of taking on the forgiveness on behalf of the Jews arose like something from my unconscious, related to my own experience treating severely abused individuals, who direct a lot of anger toward the therapist as a safe target really. But what to do with all that anger? On their behalf? I think it's a spiritual task at that point. And if it works in therapy, why might it not work on some mystical level? As a sharing in Christ's mission to extend forgiveness? I have no "systematic theology" of this. But it's like a prayer perhaps. Or a blessing one could try to confer. Across both sides of the divide. Of any divide. A prayer for transfiguration.

As for whether Jews help Christians: Do I really need to provide evidence? My own therapist was a Jew. During 3 years of my training. My first "best friend" was Jewish and her extended family embraced me. The first truly holy person I ever encountered was a Jew (Heschel). We owe a great legacy to the Jews. Jesus was a Jew!

As for "forgetting" mostly the neurons are opposed to that - it's how we learn... making use of painful experiences, pondering them.

Forgiveness, to me, is the heart of the message of Jesus. It goes against our natural inclinations. Hatred, by itself, is an emotion, which arises unbidden. Forgiveness is the work of a lifetime.

John Hobbins

Hi Mitchell,

I don't know if anything by Rossi has been translated into the language of the empire; I have his volume, "Meno ai padri, piu ai figli: Stato sociale e modernizzazione dell'Italia" = "Less to the fathers, more to the children: The social welfare state and the modernization of Italy."

Rossi talks about the fact that the form modernization in Great Britain, Italy, and like countries including our own has taken is inconceivable without the structures of the social welfare state. At the same time, those structures and entitlements are so tilted in the direction of the non-young and healthy that the young and healthy, not to mention their children, are in consequence struggling with declining levels of economic prosperity. There needs to be a very significant course correction.

I think he has a point but I am aware of the irony of writing that in a comment on a blog. Even if I were living below the poverty line as defined by who knows what US agency - I am not - I would still consider my children, 8, 17, and 20, not just me and my wife, as very much in the 1 per cent because, among other things, we are electronically wired. The internet is after all a freebie (or almost) brought to us originally by the military-industrial complex. Even though we as parents pay in big money every year to finance a number of entitlement programs for seniors and beyond, with the shortfall put on their credit card (the national debt), I am apt to consider my children as better off than I was at their age.

Are they better off from the moral and social points of view? I hope that it is the case, but in large part that is in spite of, not because of, the immense amount of wealth and cash that sloshes around in this country, in their own hands and out of them.

John Hobbins

Hi Thera,

Thanks for the conversation. In the world in which we live, I believe there is a place for hate, as there is a place for anger.

Still, the general rule applies: "do not let the sun go down on your anger." That does not always work, with respect to anger or hatred, but it is a goal well worth pursuing.

TheraP

I've enjoyed the conversation too, John. I always appreciate your intellect and your astute moral reasoning.

All emotions are OK. They are God-given and we need to respect them as sources of information. It's important we stress, however, that when it comes to hate, feelings are different from plans and plans are different from action. Hate is a useful emotion. Wishing is even OK. But murder or torture or terrorist acts are not. (To be clear, I did not see the Rabbi as at all urging putting hate into deeds. Nor have you suggested that.)

Angela Erisman

Glad you enjoyed it, John. I look forward to your thoughts.

Margo, Children's Ministry Academy

What a thoughtful, precisely written blog post! I've heard a bit about "God of the Living: A Biblical Theology", but not enough to urge me to go out and pick up a copy—until now, that is. Your have definitely given me that push I needed to buy the book and immediately jump in to reading it. Thank you so much!

Benjamin Smith

On the subject of hate, I have to say that I don't think I can trust myself to hate individuals 'righteously.' Organizational injustice, perhaps, but every time I hate an individual it's more out of self-righteousness and spite than concern for what's right.

JohnFH

Hi Benjamin,

That's a good point. Hatred in any case ought to be proportional to the amount of harm someone is doing.

Still, it pays to ask: On what grounds would you *not* hate someone who makes a sport of ruining the lives of others?

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    Mark Goodacre's blog, professor of New Testament, Duke University
  • Observatório Bíblico
    wide-ranging blog by Airton José da Silva, Professor de Bíblia Hebraica/Antigo Testamento na Faculdade de Teologia do CEARP de Ribeirão Preto, Brasile (in Portuguese)
  • Observatório Bíblico
    Blog sobre estudos acadêmicos da Bíblia, para Airton José da Silva, Professor de Bíblia Hebraica / Antigo Testamento na Faculdade de Teologia do CEARP de Ribeirão Preto, SP.
  • Occasional Publications
    excellent blogging by Daniel Driver, Brevard Childs' scholar extraordinaire
  • old testament passion
    Great stuff from Anthony Loke, a Methodist pastor and Old Testament lecturer in the Seminari Theoloji, Malaysia
  • Old Testament Pseudepigrapha Blog
    A weblog created for a course on the Old Testament Pseudepigrapha at the University of St. Andrews, Scotland, by James Davila (archive)
  • On the Main Line
    Mississippi Fred MacDowell's musings on Hebraica and Judaica. With a name like that you can't go wrong.
  • p.ost an evangelical theology for the age to come
    seeking to retell the biblical story in the difficult transition from the centre to the margins following the collapse of Western Christendom, by Andrew Perriman, independent New Testament scholar, currently located in Dubai
  • PaleoJudaica
    by James Davila, professor of Early Jewish Studies at the University of St. Andrews, St Andrews, Scotland. Judaism and the Bible in the news; tidbits about ancient Judaism and its context
  • Pastoral Epistles
    by Rick Brannan and friends, a conceptually unique Bible blog
  • Pen and Parchment
    Michael Patton and company don't just think outside the box. They are tearing down its walls.
  • Pisteuomen
    by Michael Halcomb, pastor-scholar from the Bluegrass State
  • Pseudo-Polymath
    by Mark Olson, an Orthodox view on things
  • Purging my soul . . . one blog at a time
    great theoblog by Sam Nunnally
  • Qumranica
    weblog for a course on the Dead Sea Scrolls at the University of St. Andrews, Scotland, taught by James R. Davila (archive)
  • Ralph the Sacred River
    by Edward Cook, a superb Aramaist
  • Random Bloggings
    by Calvin Park, M. Div. student at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary, South Hamilton MA
  • Resident aliens
    reflections of one not at home in this world
  • Revelation is Real
    Strong-minded comment from Tony Siew, lecturer at Trinity Theological College, Singapore
  • Ricoblog
    by Rick Brannan, it's the baby pictures I like the most
  • Rightly Dividing the Word of Truth
    Nick Norelli's fabulous blog on Bible and theology
  • SansBlogue
    by Tim Bulkeley, lecturer in Old Testament, Carey Baptist College (New Zealand). His Hypertext Commentary on Amos is an interesting experiment
  • Ancient Near Eastern Languages
    texts and files to help people learn some ancient languages in self study, by Mike Heiser
  • Midrash, etc.
    A fine Hebrew-to-English blog on Midrash, by Carl Kinbar, Director of the New School for Jewish Studies and a facultm member at MJTI School of Jewish Studies.
  • Phil Lembo what I'm thinking
    a recovering lawyer, now in IT, with a passion for a faith worth living
  • Roses and Razorwire
    a top-notch Levantine archaeology blog, by Owen Chesnut, a doctoral student at Andrews University (MI)
  • Scripture & Theology
    a communal weblog dedicated to the intersection of biblical interpretation and the articulation of church doctrine, by Daniel Driver, Phil Sumpter, and others
  • Scripture Zealot
    by Jeff Contrast
  • Serving the Word
    incisive comment on the Hebrew Bible and related ancient matters, with special attention to problems of philology and linguistic anthropology, by Seth L. Sanders, Assistant Professor in the Religion Department of Trinity College, Hartford, CT
  • Singing in the Reign
    NT blog by Michael Barber (JP University) and Brad Pitre (Our Lady Holy Cross)
  • Stay Curious
    excellent comment on Hebrew Bible and Hebrew language topics, by Karyn Traphagen, graduate, Westminster Theological Seminary, Philadelphia PA (archive)
  • Sufficiency
    A personal take on the faith delivered to the saints, by Bob MacDonald, whose parallel blog on the Psalms in Hebrew is a colorful and innovative experiment
  • The Sundry Times
    Gary Zimmerli's place, with comment on Bible translations and church renewal
  • Sunestauromai: living the crucified life
    by a scholar-pastor based in the Grand Canyon National Park
  • ta biblia
    blog dedicated to the New Testament and the history of Christian origins, by Giovanni Bazzana
  • Targuman
    by Christian Brady, targum specialist extraordinaire, and dean of Schreyer Honors College, Penn State University
  • Targuman
    on biblical and rabbinic literature, Christian theology, gadgetry, photography, and the odd comic, by Christian Brady, associate professor of ancient Hebrew and Jewish literature and dean of the Schreyer Honors College at Penn State
  • The Biblia Hebraica Blog
    a blog about Hebrew Bible/Old Testament, the history of the Ancient Near East and the classical world, Syro-Palestinian archaeology, early Judaism, early Christianity, New Testament interpretation, English Bible translations, biblical theology, religion and culture, philosophy, science fiction, and anything else relevant to the study of the Bible, by Douglas Magnum, PhD candidate, University of the Free State, South Africa
  • The Forbidden Gospels Blog
    by April DeConick, Professor of Biblical Studies, Rice University
  • The Naked Bible
    by Mike Heiser, academic editor at Logos Bible Software
  • The Reformed Reader
    by Andrew Compton, Ph.D. student in the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures (focus on Hebrew and Semitic Languages) at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)
  • The Sacred Page
    a blog written by three Catholic Ph.D.s who are professors of Scripture and Theology: Michael Barber, Brant Pitre and John Bergsma
  • The Talmud Blog
    a group blog on Talmud News, Reviews, Culture, Currents, and Criticism
  • Theological German
    a site for reading and discussing theological German, by Mark Alter
  • theoutwardquest
    seeking spirituality as an outward, not an inward quest, by David Corder
  • This Lamp
    Incisive comment on Bible translations in the archives, by Rick Mansfield
  • Thoughts on Antiquity
    By Chris Weimer and friends, posts of interest on ancient Greek and Roman topics (archive). Chris is a graduate student at the City University of New York in Classics
  • Threads from Henry's Web
    Wide-ranging comment by Henry Neufeld, educator, publisher, and author
  • Tête-à-Tête-Tête
    smart commentary by "smijer," a Unitarian-Universalist
  • Undeception
    A great blog by Mike Douglas, a graduate student in biblical studies
  • What I Learned From Aristotle
    the Judaica posts are informative (archive)
  • Bouncing into Graceland
    a delightful blog on biblical and theological themes, by Esteban Vázquez (archive)
  • Weblog
    by Justin Anthony Knapp, a fearless Wikipedian (archive)
  • Writing in the Dust
    A collection of quotes by Wesley Hill, a doctoral student in New Testament studies at Durham University (UK), and a Christian who seeks the charism of chastity
  • גֵּר־וְתוֹשָׁב
    by David Miller, Associate Professor of New Testament and Early Judaism, Briercrest College & Seminary, Caronport, Saskatchewan, Canada
  • ואל-תמכר
    Buy truth and do not sell: wisdom, instruction, and understanding - a blog by Mitchell Powell, student of life at the intersection of Christ, Christianity, and Christendom
  • משלי אדם
    exploring wisdom literature, religion, and other academic pursuits, by Adam Couturier, M.A. in Old Testament/Hebrew Bible (graduate of Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary)

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  • Ancient Hebrew Poetry is a weblog of John F. Hobbins. Opinions expressed herein do not reflect those of his professional affiliations. Unless otherwise indicated, the contents of Ancient Hebrew Poetry, including all text, images, and other media, are original and licensed under a Creative Commons License.

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    Copyright © 2005 by John F Hobbins.