SEARCH THIS SITE

Bible Reference Index

Diglot Editions

Dunash ben Labrat

Ali Ahmad Said

Verbal System of Ancient Hebrew

The Bible as seen through the eyes of . . .

« Vermes remembers De Vaux, Milik, and Strugnell, and responds to Elior | Main | A Real Mensch: Gender-Neutral Terminology in the Bible and Beyond »

Comments

Feed You can follow this conversation by subscribing to the comment feed for this post.

Duane

A month or so ago I received notice that my paper on the Biblical idiom "pisser against the wall" had been accepted for publication by a major journal subject to my addressing a few minor very concerns. In the cover letter, the editor reminded me of the journal's policy of gender neutrality and asked that where possible I modify my language in an effort to fulfill that policy more completely. I made a few changes in language to accommodate her request but I found it hard to make my translation of one Akkadian text gender natural: "If his urine flows in front of (his) penis (onto) a wall of a street, he will h[ave] sons." But then, gender and sexual neutrality are not exactly the same things.

JohnFH

Duane,

Congratulations, you pisser!

It's a sad commentary on the priorities of a discipline when the one thing people care about enough to "correct" concerns "gender-neutral" - often "gender-unnatural" language.

Who cares about a clear and interesting thesis, proper documentation, engagement with scholarship at odds with one's own, and lucid prose? It reminds me of how often I got papers back in college with no engagement whatsoever with the Sache of what I wrote. Just a few notes about commas and capitalization.

David E. S. Stein

John:
1. Let’s assume for the time being that some of the Bible’s composite idioms (made up of ’ish plus another term) might connote only males, by convention, without further recourse to context. That is, the term’s force is male even when the term is used to point to a category of persons (rather than to a particular individual).

I wonder how we today would go about determining which Hebrew collocations with ’ish were in ancient times conventionally construed as male.

And when in a given case robust evidence is lacking for such a male denotation, wouldn’t it be prudent to construe the construct chain according to each word’s usual lexical sense?

That is, let the referent’s maleness be implied—apparent as a connotation. For example, a translator could consistently employ a calque such as “party to war” and still preserve your desired intertextual concord of terminology.

More to come . . .

David E. S. Stein

John:
2. Is it true that you have argued against my assumption of “no default male gendering” on the grounds that my rendering of certain passages is awkward. If so, I don’t see how that follows.

My assumption about the meaning in Hebrew could very well be correct, even if my translation is awkward. (Conversely, a smooth rendering might be inaccurate.)

I would say that the relative awkwardness derives from other reasons. Namely, that our translation team opted not to employ “he/him/his” in a gender-neutral sense. That constraint in English has nothing to do with how we construed the Hebrew. Also, while working our way through NJPS Exodus we were still relatively tentative in our adaptation approach.

Today I might try something like this:

Ex 21:3: One who came single shall leave single. [A male slave] who has a wife: his wife shall leave with him.

My first draft of such laws actually included a lot of renderings as if they were “foregrounding a particular possibility.” (Yes, those renderings were less awkward!) But upon reflection I concluded that the Hebrew text did not justify such a construal.

That is, the wording itself was non-specific as to referents’ gender. Further, I presumed that legal materials would have been construed as broadly as possible, precisely because of genre conventions. Readers turn to the law looking first for broad applicability, not for exceptions. They narrow their focus to qualification and special considerations only where necessary to preserve a sense of equity.

Still more to come . . .

David E. S. Stein

John:
3. As you practice what you call the pragmatics of provisory interpretation, keep in mind that biblical Hebrew legal idiom is known to throw curve balls. It often intrinsically shifts to another subject or sub-case without an obvious change in the surface level of the wording.

For example, in Exodus 21:29 we are told that the animal’s owner is to be executed; yet in the very next verse, that owner is still alive:

‏ וְאִם שׁוֹר נַגָּח הוּא מִתְּמֹל שִׁלְשֹׁם
וְהוּעַד בִּבְעָלָיו וְלֹא יִשְׁמְרֶנּוּ
וְהֵמִית אִישׁ אוֹ אִשָּׁה
הַשּׁוֹר יִסָּקֵל וְגַם־בְּעָלָיו יוּמָת׃ ‎
‏ אִם־כֹּפֶר יוּשַׁת עָלָיו
וְנָתַן פִּדְיֹן נַפְשׁוֹ
כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יוּשַׁת עָלָיו׃

The syntax that separates those two sub-cases is not materially different from what separates the generic case from the male case in 21:2–3, which you quoted above. Thus I do not see any grammatical basis for your apparent syllogism:

A. The end of verse 3 clearly refers to a male slave, and it uses masculine pronouns and inflections.

B. Verse 2 and the start of verse 3 use masculine pronouns and inflections.

ERGO
C. Verse 2 and the start of verse 3 must also refer to a male slave.

JohnFH

David,

Here are a few thoughts that come to mind. A calque like "party to war," if it is fair to call that a calque, isn't going anywhere for other reasons. It's lame from a stylistic point of view.

The fact is, a translation has to pass muster on several fronts. Furthermore, if concordance across discrete texts within a larger whole is a priority, options are further limited.

It's true that robust evidence of the kind I would want is lacking for my hypothesis, that I must argue by analogy; but that applies to all hypotheses in this area, including yours.

I remain inclined to think that in legal materials, אִישׁ foregrounds a particular possibility, in the sense that an adult male referent (further defined in context) is thereby the provisional referent in the mind of the hearer or listener, subject to possible further clarification.

You are right, in any case, that my proposal - which equals your pre-understanding once upon a time - lacks a grammatical basis. Perhaps, in fact, it is too much influenced by Akkadian law ringing in the ears (shumma awilum awilam iduk "if a man kills a man").

The question is whether, in a legal context, terms like אִישׁ predisposed in the direction of a pre-understanding (male adult), or not. I think they did.

That's another way of saying that I differ with you about genre conventions. It is not the case, it seems to me, that ANE law or Israelite law in particular aimed to state law in as broad terms as possible.

Instead, it is case law full of "typical case" specifics that must be, in separata sede (in another time and place), generalized.

For the rest, I agree with you that awkwardness and accuracy are two distinct parameters by which a translation is normally evaluated.

But I have studied enough linguistics to insist on the fact that meaning, and therefore accuracy, is located at the discourse level, not the word-level.

That consideration stands in tension with another goal, that of translating word-for-word as far as possible, and with another, that of translating with relatively traditional equivalents unless there are strong reasons for doing otherwise.

Such disparate goals and considerations establish "a box" in which a translation must then fit. In one or more ways, of course, all translators box their translation in.

David E. S. Stein

Thank you, John; your position is becoming clearer to me.

You wrote: The question is whether, in a legal context, terms like אִישׁ predisposed in the direction of a pre-understanding (male adult), or not.

Okay, so on what basis can we decide which hypothesis to favor?

You hint that the precedent of Akkadian law formulations might argue for a foregrounding of particular (male) possibility. Yes, any case law is particular in its situational details, but the wording as it refers to participants is not necessarily so.

It seems to me that the key Akkadian term awilum/amilu can be profitably construed as a relational noun, just like ’ish. That is, in legal settings both of these cognate terms often have the sense of “a party [to the situation or proceedings] who is not otherwise constrained by social status such as slavery.” (The English word “man” does not convey relationship in most such contexts, and therefore it is a misleading rendering.) At least, that is what I take away from a perusal of the CAD entry for amilu:
http://oi.uchicago.edu/pdf/cad_a2.pdf ; article begins on p. 68 of the PDF, p. 48 of CAD itself; see esp. 3.b.2', CAD p. 56. Of course this is an initial speculation and needs to be tested by someone with a more solid knowledge of Akkadian than I have.

At any rate, our alternative hypothesis (that the Hebrew wording’s default in the hearer’s mind is as non-specific in terms of the referent’s gender) has support directly from the Hebrew Bible itself. I mean the legal statements that make no sense in their narrative context unless they are read as I suggest. That is, readers are supposed to presume that when grammatically masculine substantives point to a category of persons, they have women in view by default. These include Gen. 23:6-7, 8, 11, 13, 15; Exod. 25:3; 35:5; Jud. 11:30-31; and Jer. 34:14. (As you know, I discussed these instances in both the preface to The Contemporary Torah and in “The Grammar of Social Gender in Biblical Hebrew,” http://tinyurl.com/GrammarGender; but I am not sure that you have grasped the implications with regard to the noun ’ish.)

Granted that these are not case laws per se, yet like case laws each one involves a pronouncement with serious consequences and specific conditions for proper fulfillment. Note that Exod. 25:3 employs the noun ’ish.

Now add to this the non-legal instances of ’ish (Gen. 17:13; 2 Sam. 6:19; 1 Chron. 16:3) that clearly show that (unlike zakhar, “male”) it is not an intrinsically male term.

Then what reason is there to justify treating ’ish differently in case laws from everywhere else, and differently from (seemingly) every other masculine noun in the Bible? The weight of biblical grammatical evidence seems to be against such a reading. If logical parsimony is a valued criterion, then my conjecture would seem to stand on more solid ground than yours.

JohnFH

David,

Very interesting conversation. I hope an Assyriologist is listening in, such that the topics touched on here are taken up in that context in relation to law and other genres in Akkadian. Perhaps they have been already.

First of all, I want to emphasize the area of agreement we share, even though perhaps that puts the two of us in a minority position in the field.

In particular, we agree that when the diction of a text pulls very strongly in the direction of a foregrounding of particular (male-gendered, and often further specified) possibility, it is still the case that the foregrounding did not - at least, this is my hypothesis and yours - establish an absolute limit, such that an *analogical reading* that applied the text to oneself even if one did not fit the category foregrounded, was a reading compatible with shared genre conventions.

Examples of foregrounded addressees: the paterfamilias in the Ten Words viewed as a unit; the male son addressed in Proverbs 1 and following.

I think you show the viability of analogical readings by pointing out examples in which the focus is widened without warning in specific instances. The analogical reading the text by convention allows remains below the surface most of the time, but nonetheless comes to the surface here and there in relatively random fashion.

I do struggle a bit with the notion of ish as an intrinsically gender-neutral term. For example, if I ask myself, are ish and isha intrinsically gendered terms, my answer is: yes. That is, abstracted from any context beyond an ish-isha collocation, the terms are intrinsically gendered.

On the other hand, if I ask myself, is ish gender-free in some usages, my answer is: yes. (Soft or hard) opposition with (overt or covert) isha is not always present. Far from it.

The question then is, in legal material like Ex 21:1-23:19, are ish and isha collocated such that the terms are intrinsically gendered? I think they are, though it is *also* true that ish is gender-ambivalent in a sense that isha is not, even if ish predisposes in one direction. Predisposition is not the same thing as eliminating a gender-neutral construal - something that the use of isha does; in this sense, ish and isha are asymmetric.

If ish did not predispose to a particular gendered reading, it would have been sufficient to use it whenever, for quite separate reasons, a "doubt factor" was in play in terms of applicability of a given case law.

But ish was not sufficient to remove doubt, which suggests that it is not a gender-neutral term in the strict sense, or the strictest sense imaginable.

Nor do I think that zakar would have been used in case law, instead of ish, if the foregrounding of the particular possibility in question (adult male, otherwise unspecified) were thought important. It seems to me that the use of zakar and neqevah has a distribution of its own which make the terms unfit for use in the contexts (or many of them) under consideration.

For the rest, I am wary of applying the law of parsimony to language. Language seems to delight in curious situations in which some things are made redundantly clear, and some things are even made redundantly ambiguous. Parsimony seems a rule hardly ever followed, in languages that inflect for gender first of all.

David E. S. Stein

Hmm. Regarding the law of parsimony, I wonder whether you have misplaced its point of application. The issue should not be whether language itself is parsimonious but whether our explanatory hypotheses are.

The explanation that can account for the linguistic data with the fewest twists and turns is supposed to be preferable, from a scientific point of view. Conversely, we are supposed to look beyond a straightforward explanation only where it is insufficient to account for the data.

David E. S. Stein

John:
Regarding what you wrote:
Examples of foregrounded addressees: the paterfamilias in the Ten Words viewed as a unit

That statement seems at odds with the conclusion that you came to previously, when you reviewed my analysis of that passage:
http://ancienthebrewpoetry.typepad.com/ancient_hebrew_poetry/2007/12/is-the-decalogu.html

JohnFH

Hi David,

Re: the law of parsimony. My point is: if the situation on the ground is complex such that a statement that "ish" is intrinsically this or intrinsically that obscures rather than clarifies that complexity, then it may be best to do without "intrinsic" hypotheses, per the law of parsimony.

But that probably goes too far. So we are back to exploring various hypotheses which seek to understand the variety of ways a highly versatile word like "ish" is used.

Re: my previous discussion of the Ten Words. I don't see how my current comments are in contradiction with my comments then. Then and now, I second you on the need to assume *a reading strategy* such that language tailored for a foregrounded audience (the paterfamilias, clearest in the case of the last commandment) would be adjusted by others so as to apply to them. I disagree with those who say that, given the limited scope of the language itself, a generalizing reading strategy is inappropriate. Law in general and case law in particular is received, it seems to me, by genre convention, as capable and in need of generalization. The ability to do so well is what distinguishes an excellent interpreter of the law from a poor one.

David E. S. Stein

John, hello again!
Another way to assess the (referential gender) behavior of masculine nouns in legal settings may be via looking at animals rather than human beings. Let’s try out the Type A approach with respect to case-law references to animals.

Consider the word seh (“small livestock beast,” as glossed in HALOT), which is grammatically masculine. In itself it is not referentially male, as is demonstrated, for example, by the qualifying adjective in Exod. 12:5 (‏שֶׂה תָמִים זָכָר) seh thamim zakhar “an unblemished male seh.”

Now consider Exod. 21:37 (marked as 22:1 in many English editions)—
‏ כִּי יִגְנֹב־אִישׁ שׁוֹר אוֹ־שֶׂה וּטְבָחוֹ אוֹ מְכָרוו
ki yignov ’ish shor ’o seh
u-tvaho ’o m’kharo

“When a party steals an ox or a sheep,
and slaughters it or sells it...”

I would agree that “foregrounding of particular possibility” has occurred in the mention of certain animal species. Everyone is supposed to understand that these are the kind of animals most likely to be stolen.

Now, here the masculine singular object suffix of the latter two verbs refers back to shor ’o seh (“ox or sheep”). The reference is to a category: any such animal that satisfies the conditions of the law. So what does it mean that the word seh governs masculine pronouns?
• Does it mean that it’s a crime to steal only a male beast?
• Does it mean that a male animal is being used as a typical (or particular) case?

These are possible explanations. And they cannot be disproven, to wit:

A possible refutation:
A female beast was much more economically valuable than a male; therefore the typical case of theft ought to be a female beast, not a male one.

Possible reply to that refutation:
Sometimes a law is intentionally stated in terms of the “atypical case.” That is, if it applies to a (less valuable) male beast, then “all the more so” it must apply to a (more valuable) female!

(Presumably such reasoning is what justifies rendering in English in the singular, given that the Hebrew could be taken as a collective and and thus cover the theft of more than one animal. The translator has opted to render in terms of the atypical case of single-animal theft, and then we readers think to ourselves “all the more so for multiple animals.”)

Again, what does it mean that the word seh governs masculine pronouns? A more parsimonious explanation is that (as in all other noun references to a category) the masculine wording is a matter of grammatical gender concord only. It is not a matter of referential gender, except to say “not solely female.”

Perhaps that is why KJV/Alter/ESV all render the suffixed pronouns via the sex-neutral term “it”:
If a man shall steal an ox, or a sheep, and kill it, or sell it (KJV)

My question to you is:
Are you saying that an ideal Type A gender-sensitive translation should render this pronoun as “him”?

Verify your Comment

Previewing your Comment

This is only a preview. Your comment has not yet been posted.

Working...
Your comment could not be posted. Error type:
Your comment has been posted. Post another comment

The letters and numbers you entered did not match the image. Please try again.

As a final step before posting your comment, enter the letters and numbers you see in the image below. This prevents automated programs from posting comments.

Having trouble reading this image? View an alternate.

Working...

Post a comment

Your Information

(Name and email address are required. Email address will not be displayed with the comment.)

My Photo

Google Blogrolls

a community of bloggers

  • Abnormal Interests
    Intrepid forays into realia and texts of the Ancient Near East, by Duane Smith
  • After Existentialism, Light
    A thoughtful theology blog by Kevin Davis, an M. Div. student at University of North Carolina-Charlotte
  • AKMA's Random Thoughts
    by A. K. M. Adam, Lecturer in New Testament at the University of Glasgow
  • alternate readings
    C. Stirling Bartholomew's place
  • Ancient Hebrew Grammar
    informed comment by Robert Holmstedt, Associate Professor, Ancient Hebrew and Northwest Semitic Languages, Department of Near and Middle Eastern Civilizations, University of Toronto, and John Cook, Associate Professor of Old Testament, Asbury Theological Seminary (Wilmore KY)
  • Antiquitopia
    one of the best blogs out there, by Jared Calaway, assistant professor in the Department of Religion at Illinois Wesleyan University.
  • Anumma - Hebrew Bible and Higher Education
    by G. Brooke Lester, Assistant Professor in Hebrew Bible, and Director for Emerging Pedagogies, at Garrett-Evangelical Theological Seminary (Evanston IL)
  • Awilum
    Insightful commentary on the Bible and the Ancient Near East, by Charles Halton
  • AWOL - The Ancient World Online
    notice and comment on open access material relating to the ancient world, by Charles Jones of the Institute for the Study of the Ancient World, New York University
  • Balshanut
    top-notch Biblical Hebrew and Semitics blog by Peter Bekins, Ph. D. student, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati OH, faculty member, Wright State University (archive)
  • Believing is Knowing
    Comments on things like prophecy, predestination, and reward and punishment from an orthodox Jewish perspective, by David Guttmann
  • Ben Byerly's Blog
    thoughts on the Bible, Africa, Kenya, aid, and social justice, by Ben Byerly, a PhD candidate at Africa International University (AIU), in Nairobi, Kenya working on “The Hopes of Israel and the Ends of Acts” (Luke’s narrative defense of Paul to Diaspora Judeans in Acts 16-20)
  • Berit Olam
    by a thoughtful Matt Morgan, Berkeley CA resident, grad student in Old Testament at Regent University, Vancouver BC (archive)
  • Better Bibles Blog
    Discussion of translation problems and review of English Bible translations by Wayne Leman, Iver Larsen, Mike Sangrey, and others
  • Bibbia Blog
    A Bible blog in Italian and English by former students of the PIB and PUG
  • Bible Background research and commentary
    by Craig Keener, professor of New Testament, Asbury Theological Seminary
  • Bible Design & Binding
    J. Mark Bertrand's place
  • BiblePlaces Blog
    a spotlight on the historical geography of the Holy Land, by Todd Bolen, formerly, Assistant Professor at the Israel Bible Extension campus of The Master's College, Santa Clarita CA
  • Biblicalia
    The riches of orthodoxy brought online by Kevin Edgecomb, a seminarian at Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology (Brookline MA)
  • Biblische Ausbildung
    by Stephen L. Cook, professor of Old Testament / Hebrew Bible at Virginia Theological Seminary
  • C. Orthodoxy
    Christian, Contemporary, Conscientious… or Just Confused, by Ken Brown, a very thoughtful blog (archive). Ken is currently a Dr. Theol. student at Georg-August-Universität in Göttingen, part of The Sofja-Kovalevskaja Research Group studying early Jewish Monotheism. His dissertation will focus on the presentation of God in Job.
  • Catholic Bibles
    a thoughtful blog about Bible translations by Timothy, who has a degree in sacred theology from the Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas in Rome (Angelicum) and teaches theology in a Catholic high school in Michigan
  • Chrisendom
    irreverent blog with a focus on the New Testament, by Chris Tilling, New Testament Tutor for St Mellitus College and St Paul's Theological Centre, London
  • Claude Mariottini
    a perspective on the Old Testament and current events by a professor of Old Testament at Northern Baptist Theological Seminary, Chicagoland, Illinois
  • Codex: Biblical Studies Blogspot
    by Tyler Williams, a scholar of the Hebrew Bible and cognate literature, now Assistant Professor of Theology at The King's University College in Edmonton, Alberta (archive)
  • Colours of Scripture
    reflections on theology, philosophy, and literature, by Benjamin Smith, afflicted with scriptural synaesthesia, and located in London, England
  • Complegalitarian
    A team blog that discusses right ways and wrong ways Scripture might help in the social construction of gender (old archive only; more recent archive, unfortunately, no longer publicly available)
  • Connected Christianity
    a place to explore what it might be like if Christians finally got the head, heart, and hands of their faith re-connected (archive)
  • Conversational Theology
    Smart and delightful comment by Ros Clarke, a Ph.D. student at the University of the Highlands and Islands, at the (virtual) Highland Theological College (archive)
  • Daily Hebrew
    For students of biblical Hebrew and the ancient Near East, by Chip Hardy, a doctoral student at the University of Chicago
  • Daniel O. McClellan
    a fine blog by the same, who is pursuing a master of arts degree in biblical studies at Trinity Western University just outside of Vancouver, BC.
  • Davar Akher
    Looking for alternative explanations: comments on things Jewish and beyond, by Simon Holloway, a PhD student in Classical Hebrew and Biblical Studies at The University of Sydney, Australia
  • Deinde
    News and Discussion by Danny Zacharias
  • Discipulus scripturae
    Nathan Stitt's place
  • Dr. Claude Mariottini
    balanced comment by a professor of Old Testament at Northern Baptist Seminary, Lombard IL
  • Dr. Platypus
    insightful comment by Darrell Pursiful, editor at Smyth & Helwys Publishing, on the New Testament faculty of Mercer University
  • Dust
    A diary of Bob MacDonald's journey through the Psalms and other holy places in the Hebrew Bible
  • Eclexia
    The heart and mind of this Bible and theology blogger sing in unison
  • Eat, Drink, and be Merry
    The journey of a grad student with a love for ancient languages at Gordon Conwell Theological Seminary (archive)
  • Elizaphanian
    Rev Sam tussles with God, and limps away
  • Emerging from Babel
    Stephen investigates the potential of narrative and rhetorical criticism as a tool for expounding scripture
  • Evangelical Textual Criticism
    A group blog on NT and OT text-critical matters
  • Evedyahu
    excellent comment by Cristian Rata, Lecturer in Old Testament of Torch Trinity Graduate School of Theology, Seoul, Korea
  • Exegetica Digita
    discussion of Logos high-end syntax and discourse tools – running searches, providing the downloads (search files) and talking about what can be done and why it might matter for exegesis, by Mike Heiser
  • Exegetisk Teologi
    careful exegetical comment by Stefan Green (in Swedish)
  • Exploring Our Matrix
    Insightful reflections by James McGrath, ass't. professor of religion, Butler University
  • Faith Matters
    Mark Alter's place
  • Ferrell's Travel Blog
    comments of biblical studies, archaeology, history, and photography by a tour guide of Bible lands and professor emeritus of the Biblical Studies department at Florida College, Temple Terrace (FL)
  • Fors Clavigera
    James K. A. Smith, professor of philosophy at Calvin College, thinks out loud.
  • Friar's Fires
    an insightful blog by a pastor with a background in journalism, one of three he pens
  • Gentle Wisdom
    A fearless take on issues roiling Christendom today, by Peter Kirk, a Bible translator
  • Giluy Milta B‘alma
    by Ezra Chwat and Avraham David of the Institute of Microfilmed Hebrew Manuscripts, Jewish National and Hebrew University Library, Jerusalem
  • He is Sufficient
    insightful comment on Bible translations, eschatology, and more, by Elshaddai Edwards
  • Higgaion
    by Chris Heard, Professor of Religion, Pepperdine University
  • Idle Musings of a Bookseller
    by James Spinti of Eisenbrauns
  • if i were a bell, i'd ring
    Tim Ricchiuiti’s place
  • Imaginary Grace
    Smooth, witty commentary by Angela Erisman (archive). Angela Erisman is a member of the theology faculty at Xavier University
  • James' Thoughts and Musings
    by James Pate, a doctoral student at HUC-JIR Cincinnati
  • Jewish Philosophy Place
    by Zachary (Zak) Braiterman, who teaches modern Jewish thought and philosophy in the Department of Religion at Syracuse University
  • kata ta biblia
    by Patrick George McCollough, M. Div. student, Fuller Theological Seminary, Pasadena CA
  • Ketuvim
    Learned reflection from the keyboard of Jim Getz
  • Kilbabo
    Ben Johnson’s insightful blog
  • Kruse Kronicle - contemplating the intersection of work, the global economy, and Christian mission
    top quality content brought to readers by Michael W. Kruse
  • Larry Hurtado's blog
    emeritus professor of New Testament Language, Literature & Theology, University of Edinburgh
  • Law, Prophets, and Writings
    thoughtful blogging by William R. (Rusty) Osborne, Assistant Professor of Biblical and Theological Studies as College of the Ozarks and managing editor for Journal for the Evangelical Study of the Old Testament
  • Lingamish
    delightful fare by David Ker, Bible translator, who also lingalilngas.
  • Looney Fundamentalist
    a scientist who loves off-putting labels
  • Menachem Mendel
    A feisty blog on rabbinic literature and other Judaica by Michael Pitkowsky, Rabbinics Curriculum Coordinator at the Academy for Jewish Religion and adjunct instructor at Jewish Theological Seminary (New York)
  • mu-pàd-da
    scholarly blog by C. Jay Crisostomo, grad student in ANE studies at ?
  • Narrative and Ontology
    Astoundingly thoughtful comment from Phil Sumpter, a Ph.D. student in Bible, resident in Bonn, Germany
  • New Epistles
    by Kevin Sam, M. Div. student at the Lutheran Theological Seminary, Saskatoon SK
  • NT Weblog
    Mark Goodacre's blog, professor of New Testament, Duke University
  • Observatório Bíblico
    wide-ranging blog by Airton José da Silva, Professor de Bíblia Hebraica/Antigo Testamento na Faculdade de Teologia do CEARP de Ribeirão Preto, Brasile (in Portuguese)
  • Observatório Bíblico
    Blog sobre estudos acadêmicos da Bíblia, para Airton José da Silva, Professor de Bíblia Hebraica / Antigo Testamento na Faculdade de Teologia do CEARP de Ribeirão Preto, SP.
  • Occasional Publications
    excellent blogging by Daniel Driver, Brevard Childs' scholar extraordinaire
  • old testament passion
    Great stuff from Anthony Loke, a Methodist pastor and Old Testament lecturer in the Seminari Theoloji, Malaysia
  • Old Testament Pseudepigrapha Blog
    A weblog created for a course on the Old Testament Pseudepigrapha at the University of St. Andrews, Scotland, by James Davila (archive)
  • On the Main Line
    Mississippi Fred MacDowell's musings on Hebraica and Judaica. With a name like that you can't go wrong.
  • p.ost an evangelical theology for the age to come
    seeking to retell the biblical story in the difficult transition from the centre to the margins following the collapse of Western Christendom, by Andrew Perriman, independent New Testament scholar, currently located in Dubai
  • PaleoJudaica
    by James Davila, professor of Early Jewish Studies at the University of St. Andrews, St Andrews, Scotland. Judaism and the Bible in the news; tidbits about ancient Judaism and its context
  • Pastoral Epistles
    by Rick Brannan and friends, a conceptually unique Bible blog
  • Pen and Parchment
    Michael Patton and company don't just think outside the box. They are tearing down its walls.
  • Pisteuomen
    by Michael Halcomb, pastor-scholar from the Bluegrass State
  • Pseudo-Polymath
    by Mark Olson, an Orthodox view on things
  • Purging my soul . . . one blog at a time
    great theoblog by Sam Nunnally
  • Qumranica
    weblog for a course on the Dead Sea Scrolls at the University of St. Andrews, Scotland, taught by James R. Davila (archive)
  • Ralph the Sacred River
    by Edward Cook, a superb Aramaist
  • Random Bloggings
    by Calvin Park, M. Div. student at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary, South Hamilton MA
  • Resident aliens
    reflections of one not at home in this world
  • Revelation is Real
    Strong-minded comment from Tony Siew, lecturer at Trinity Theological College, Singapore
  • Ricoblog
    by Rick Brannan, it's the baby pictures I like the most
  • Rightly Dividing the Word of Truth
    Nick Norelli's fabulous blog on Bible and theology
  • SansBlogue
    by Tim Bulkeley, lecturer in Old Testament, Carey Baptist College (New Zealand). His Hypertext Commentary on Amos is an interesting experiment
  • Ancient Near Eastern Languages
    texts and files to help people learn some ancient languages in self study, by Mike Heiser
  • Midrash, etc.
    A fine Hebrew-to-English blog on Midrash, by Carl Kinbar, Director of the New School for Jewish Studies and a facultm member at MJTI School of Jewish Studies.
  • Phil Lembo what I'm thinking
    a recovering lawyer, now in IT, with a passion for a faith worth living
  • Roses and Razorwire
    a top-notch Levantine archaeology blog, by Owen Chesnut, a doctoral student at Andrews University (MI)
  • Scripture & Theology
    a communal weblog dedicated to the intersection of biblical interpretation and the articulation of church doctrine, by Daniel Driver, Phil Sumpter, and others
  • Scripture Zealot
    by Jeff Contrast
  • Serving the Word
    incisive comment on the Hebrew Bible and related ancient matters, with special attention to problems of philology and linguistic anthropology, by Seth L. Sanders, Assistant Professor in the Religion Department of Trinity College, Hartford, CT
  • Singing in the Reign
    NT blog by Michael Barber (JP University) and Brad Pitre (Our Lady Holy Cross)
  • Stay Curious
    excellent comment on Hebrew Bible and Hebrew language topics, by Karyn Traphagen, graduate, Westminster Theological Seminary, Philadelphia PA (archive)
  • Sufficiency
    A personal take on the faith delivered to the saints, by Bob MacDonald, whose parallel blog on the Psalms in Hebrew is a colorful and innovative experiment
  • The Sundry Times
    Gary Zimmerli's place, with comment on Bible translations and church renewal
  • Sunestauromai: living the crucified life
    by a scholar-pastor based in the Grand Canyon National Park
  • ta biblia
    blog dedicated to the New Testament and the history of Christian origins, by Giovanni Bazzana
  • Targuman
    by Christian Brady, targum specialist extraordinaire, and dean of Schreyer Honors College, Penn State University
  • Targuman
    on biblical and rabbinic literature, Christian theology, gadgetry, photography, and the odd comic, by Christian Brady, associate professor of ancient Hebrew and Jewish literature and dean of the Schreyer Honors College at Penn State
  • The Biblia Hebraica Blog
    a blog about Hebrew Bible/Old Testament, the history of the Ancient Near East and the classical world, Syro-Palestinian archaeology, early Judaism, early Christianity, New Testament interpretation, English Bible translations, biblical theology, religion and culture, philosophy, science fiction, and anything else relevant to the study of the Bible, by Douglas Magnum, PhD candidate, University of the Free State, South Africa
  • The Forbidden Gospels Blog
    by April DeConick, Professor of Biblical Studies, Rice University
  • The Naked Bible
    by Mike Heiser, academic editor at Logos Bible Software
  • The Reformed Reader
    by Andrew Compton, Ph.D. student in the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures (focus on Hebrew and Semitic Languages) at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)
  • The Sacred Page
    a blog written by three Catholic Ph.D.s who are professors of Scripture and Theology: Michael Barber, Brant Pitre and John Bergsma
  • The Talmud Blog
    a group blog on Talmud News, Reviews, Culture, Currents, and Criticism
  • Theological German
    a site for reading and discussing theological German, by Mark Alter
  • theoutwardquest
    seeking spirituality as an outward, not an inward quest, by David Corder
  • This Lamp
    Incisive comment on Bible translations in the archives, by Rick Mansfield
  • Thoughts on Antiquity
    By Chris Weimer and friends, posts of interest on ancient Greek and Roman topics (archive). Chris is a graduate student at the City University of New York in Classics
  • Threads from Henry's Web
    Wide-ranging comment by Henry Neufeld, educator, publisher, and author
  • Tête-à-Tête-Tête
    smart commentary by "smijer," a Unitarian-Universalist
  • Undeception
    A great blog by Mike Douglas, a graduate student in biblical studies
  • What I Learned From Aristotle
    the Judaica posts are informative (archive)
  • Bouncing into Graceland
    a delightful blog on biblical and theological themes, by Esteban Vázquez (archive)
  • Weblog
    by Justin Anthony Knapp, a fearless Wikipedian (archive)
  • Writing in the Dust
    A collection of quotes by Wesley Hill, a doctoral student in New Testament studies at Durham University (UK), and a Christian who seeks the charism of chastity
  • גֵּר־וְתוֹשָׁב
    by David Miller, Associate Professor of New Testament and Early Judaism, Briercrest College & Seminary, Caronport, Saskatchewan, Canada
  • ואל-תמכר
    Buy truth and do not sell: wisdom, instruction, and understanding - a blog by Mitchell Powell, student of life at the intersection of Christ, Christianity, and Christendom
  • משלי אדם
    exploring wisdom literature, religion, and other academic pursuits, by Adam Couturier, M.A. in Old Testament/Hebrew Bible (graduate of Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary)

Viewing Documents

  • Adobe Acrobat Reader
    To view the documents on this blog you will need Adobe Acrobat Reader. If you do not have this, download it from the link above.
Blog powered by Typepad

Technorati

Terms


  • Ancient Hebrew Poetry is a weblog of John F. Hobbins. Opinions expressed herein do not reflect those of his professional affiliations. Unless otherwise indicated, the contents of Ancient Hebrew Poetry, including all text, images, and other media, are original and licensed under a Creative Commons License.

    Creative Commons License

    Copyright © 2005 by John F Hobbins.